• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The Italian language distinguishes two genders: masculine and feminine.

    enlightenedBe careful! Italian nouns always have a gender (even animals and things).

    How to recognize the gender of nouns in Italian

    According to gender, we can identify four categories

    • masculine in -o

    • masculine in -e

    • feminine in -a

    • feminine in -e

    Masculine Italian English
       -o albero tree
       -e fiore flower

     

    Feminine Italian English
       -a bottiglia bottle
       -e stazione stazione

    Here some tricks to recognize the gender of nouns ending in -e:

    • masculine: -ore, -ale, -ile

    • feminine: -ione, -udine, -ice


    Animated beings vs. Inanimated beings

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    Animated beings

    The grammatical gender follows the natural one

    • masculine: zio, gatto
                      uncle, cat
    • feminine: zia, gatta
                    aunt, female cat

     

    Inanimated beings

    The grammatical gender is just a language convention

    • masculine: tavolo, cappotto
                       table, coat

    • feminine: fiaba, maglia
                    fairy tale, shirt

    Here some tricks to recognize the gender of inanimated beings

      Masculine Feminine
    Categories trees
    chemical elements
    months, days of the week
    seas, mountains, lakes, rivers

    fruits
    sciences
    abstract concepts
    cities, islands, regions, countries, continents

    Endings -o, -consonant (foreign origine) -a, - i, -tà, -tù


    Masculine and feminine formation in Italian

    A lot of Italian nouns, in particular nouns of animated beings, can have both masculine and feminine forms.

    Regular nouns

    In general, Italian nouns create the feminine form (or the masculine one) by editing their ending

    Masculine Feminine Italian English
       -o    -a nonno → nonna grandfather → grandmother
       -e    -a parrucchiere → parrucchiera male hairdresser → female hairdresser


    Irregular nouns

    A lot of nouns form their feminine form (or the masculine one) in an irregular way

    Irregularities Features Italian   English
    complete irregularity two different words fratello → sorella brother → sister
    common gender same form + different article l(o)' artista →l(a)'artista male artist → female artist
    promiscuous gender same form + same article (il) coniglio rabbit
    suffix changing same root + different suffix studente → studentessa male student → female student
    change of meaning two different meanings (il) caso → (la) casa fate → house

     

    Complete irregularity

    These nouns have two differents words for each gender

    genero → nuora
    son-in-law → daughter-in-law
    dio → dea
    god → goddess


    Common gender (same form and different article)

    These nouns (professions, jobs...) have the same form both for masculine and feminine. Just the article can distinguish the two genders.

    (il) cantante → (la) cantante
    male singer → female singer

    (il) nipote → (la) nipote
    nephew/grandson →niece/granddaughter
     

    Promiscuous gender (same form and same article)

    These nouns have just one form for both genders. Even the article is the same.

    (la) vittima
    victim

    (il) medico
    doctor

    That works especially with nouns referring to animals. If you want to indicate the female animal, you have to specify it.

    (il) leopardo → (il) leopardo femmina
    male leopard → female leopard
    (la) zebra→ (la) zebra maschio
    female zebra → male zebra

    The only exception are gatto→gatta (male cat → female cat) and cane → cagna (male dog → female dog)

     

    Suffix changing

    These nouns keep their root but they change the suffix in the following way:  -tore → -trice, -e → -essa, -a → -essa

    attore → attrice
    actor → actress
    professore → professoressa
    male teacher → female teacher
    poeta → poetessa
    poet → poetess
     


    Change of meaning

    These nouns have a different meaning in masculine and feminine forms

    (il) buco → (la) buca
    hole → pit
    (il) baleno → (la) balena
    flash → whale