• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Personal pronouns in Italian

    In Italian, there are 4 categories of personal pronouns.

    • Subject pronouns (I, you, he, she,...)
    • Stressed personal pronouns (me, you, him, her,...)
    • Unstressed personal pronouns (Direct object pronouns) → does not exist in English
    • Unstressed personal pronouns (indirect object pronouns)  →  does not exist in English

    In this chapter we are going to discuss all of the 4 categories.

    Which are the personal pronouns in Italian?

    We use personal pronouns (pronomi personali) to replace persons, animals, things or ideas.

    Subject pronouns Stressed personal pronouns Unstressed personal pronouns
    Direct object pronouns
    Unstressed personal pronouns
    Indirect object pronouns
     Io (I) Me (Me) Mi Mi
    Tu - Lei (You) Te (You) Ti Ti
    EgliEssoLui (He) Lui (Him) Lo, Gli Gli, Ne
    Ella, EssaLei (She) Lei (Her) La, Le Le, Ne
    Noi (We) Noi (Us) Ci  Ci
    Voi (You) Voi (You) Vi  Vi
    EssiLoro (They, masculine) Loro (Them) Li Gli, Loro, Ne
    EsseLoro (They, feminine) Loro (Them) Le Gli, Loro, Ne


    Italian subject pronouns (io, tu, egli, noi, voi, essi)

    Pronoun English
    Io I
    Tu (Lei) You (You)
    Egli, EssoLui He
    Ella, EssaLei She
    Esso It
    Noi We
    Voi You
    Essi → Loro They (masculine)
    Esse → Loro They (feminine)


    The third person pronouns (Egli, Esso, Ella, Essa, Essi, Esse) could still appear in some texts but they have been replaced in speech and writing by more colloquial forms, LuiLeiLoro.

    In Italian we can omit the subject pronoun to highlight the action instead of the subject

    Italian English
    (Io) Voglio festeggiare il mio compleanno in spiaggia. I want to have a birthday party on the beach.
    (Tu) Vuoi che me ne vada? Do you want me to leave?
    (Noi) Cuciniamo degli spaghetti.  We are cooking some spaghetti.


    Tu vs Lei (form of politeness)

    The form Lei is a form of politeness. 
    It's used in a formal context and when addressing somebody you don't know well, older or in a higher position than you.
    Remember to write it with a capital letter, not to confuse it with third singular person lei (she).

    To distinguish it from Tu, pay attention to the main verb.

    • Tu → verb on the second singular person
    • Lei → verb on the third singular person
    Italian English
    Ehi, tu, vieni qui! Hey you, come here!
    Io e lei abbiamo una relazione a distanza da un anno. She and I have been in a long-distance relationship for a year.
    Signor Rossi, io credo che Lei dovrebbe accettare questa proposta. Mr. Rossi, I think you should accept this proposal.


    Direct and indirect object pronouns in Italian

    To understand the difference between these two kinds of pronouns, it's necessary to analize the sentence and context.

    • Direct object → answers question Who? What?
    • Indirect object → answer question Whom? To what? For what?
    Italian English
    Tu mangi You eat. (You → subject of the sentence, does the action)
    Io ti vedo. I see you. (You → complement: direct object, answers question Who? What?)
    Io parlo con te. I talk to you. (You → complement: indirect object, answers question Whom? To what?)


    Stressed personal pronouns

    These pronouns are used to replace an indirect object (whom? to what? for what?).

    They are called stressed because the accent of the sentence falls on them.

    Stressed pronouns don't need to be merged with the main verb, unlike unstressed pronouns.
    They usually come after the verb and are introduced by a preposition.

    Italian English
    Me Me
    Te You
    Lui Him
    Lei Her
    Noi Us
    Voi You
    Loro Them


    Let's analize some examples.

    Italian English
    Volevo andare con lui. I wanted to go with him.
    Questa torta è stata fatta da me. This cake was baked by me. 
    Basta chiacchierare con loro! Stop chatting with them!


    Unstressed personal pronouns (direct object pronouns)

    These pronouns are called unstressed because the accent of the sentence never falls on them.
    Direct object pronouns replace the direct object (who? what?).

    These pronouns can either precede the verb or be merged with it. The differences in usage depends on the context.

    Direct object pronouns
    Lo (masculine) La (feminine) L' (+vowel) Ne 
    Li (masculine) Le (feminine)


    Take a look at the following sentences

    English Italian
    È una bella notizia, l'ho sentita ieri. It is a good news, I heard about it yesterday.
    Non trovo le chiavi. Le hai viste? I can't find my keys. Have you seen them?
    Ti ho visto l'altra sera in giro. I saw you around the other night.
    Mi senti? Do you hear me?
    Ci incontreremo in piazza. We will meet in the square


    enlightened A direct object pronoun is merged with the verb if its mood is infinitive, gerund or participle.
    Remember! Drop the final vowel of the verb before adding the pronoun.


    Italian English
    Non sono riuscito a convincerle.
    convincere (to convince) → convincer- →
    convincerle (to convince them)
    I did not succeed in convincing them.

    C'è del pesce in frigo. Mangialo!
    mangiare (to eat) → mangia- (imperative) → 
    mangialo (eat it)

    There's some fish in the fridge. Eat it!
    Vieni a trovarci!
    trovare (to come and see) → trovar- →
    trovarci (come and visit us)
    Come visit us!


    Unstressed personal pronouns (indirect object pronouns)

    Indirect object pronouns replace indirect objects (whom? to what? for what?).
    They could be considered the equivalent of "to me", "to you", "to him", or any question that could be answered with a English preposition.

    These pronouns always require a verb and they can either precede or be placed after it.

    Indirect object pronouns
    Gli, Le, Ne
    Gli (masculine), Loro (feminine), Ne


    Take a look at the following sentences.

    Italian English
    Ho bisogno di affidarti il mio gatto per tre giorni. I need you to take care of my cat for three days.
    Tra poco vi porterò del pane. I will soon bring you some bread.
    Mi ha convinto, così le ho dato una possibilità.  She convinced me, so I gave her a chance.
    Gli parlerò io. I will talk to him.
    Ti spedirò una lettera. I will send you a letter.


    enlightened When the pronouns come after a verb, they are usually merged with the verb form itself if the verb is an infinite, gerund or participle.

    Italian English
    Portateci del vino. Bring us some wine.
    Ci interessa la vostra offerta. We are interested in your offer.
    Regalami un profumo nuovo! Get me a new perfume as a present!
    Digli che ho cambiato idea. Tell him I changed my mind.
    Non può mandarti quella email. He can't send you that email.


    Double object pronouns in Italian (direct and indirect object)

    Direct and indirect object pronouns may be used together in the same sentence or even in the same word.

    If the direct object is placed towards the end of a sentence, it's usually referred back to with a pronoun in the sentence that follows.

    Guarda quelle arance. Me le porti? (Will you bring me those oranges?)
    Me = to me
    Le = the oranges, direct object

    The indirect object pronoun usually precedes the direct object pronoun and changes its form as follows:

    Indirect object pronoun New form
    Mi Me
    Ti Te
    Gli Glie
    Le Glie
    Ci Ce
    Vi Ve
    Gli Glie


    Here are all the possible combinations:

    Person Masculine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Singular Feminine Plural
    It + me Me lo Me la Me li Me le
    It + you Te lo Te la Te li Te le
    It + him/her/it Glielo Gliela Glieli Gliele
    It + us Ce lo Ce la Ce li Ce le
    It + you Ve lo Ve la Ve li Ve le
    It + them Glielo Gliela Glieli Gliele


    Let's analize some examples.

    Italian English
    Non ve lo dico. I won't tell you this.
    Me li dai 10 euro? Don't you give me 10 euros?
    Te lo spiegherà Marco. Marco will explain this to you.
    Glielo puoi inviare? Can you send this to him?
    Ce li hanno portati dall'Olanda. They brought us these from the Netherlands.


    Exercise on Italian personal subject pronouns - Drag Text

    Exercise on Italian personal subject pronouns - Single choice set

    Exercise on Italian pronouns tu (informal) and Lei (formal) - Single choice set

    Exercise on Italian stressed complement pronouns - Fill in the blanks

    Exercise on Italian unstressed pronouns - Fill in the blanks

    Exercise on Italian double object pronouns - Multiple choice