• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • What is the congiuntivo presente in Italian?

    The presente congiuntivo is one of the most used tenses of the subjunctive mood in Italian. It usually expresses unreal or hypothetical statements.

    How the present subjunctive is used in Italian

    Usually, Italian speakers use the present subjunctive to:

    1. express wishes, order and hopes
    2. express doubts or hypothesis
    3. express an order or a desire (mainly in the main clause as a courtesy form)
    Examples Translation

    Spero che il tuo esame vada bene.

    I hope you will pass your exam.

    Mi auguro che tu mangi quella torta.

    I hope you will eat that cake.

    Non voglio che si demoralizzi.

    I don't want her to become disheartened.

    Vada avanti, io la seguo. 

    You go forward, I'll follow!

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      Where does the congiuntivo presente occur?

      If it is used correctly, the present subjunctive in Italian appears:

      • in the che clauses: i.e. the objective, subjective and declarative sentences.
      • in the final clauses with affinché, poiché, in quanto, perché... (in order to, because, to...);
      • in the concessive clause with benché, sebbene, nonostante... (even though, although, albeit...);
      • in the temporal clauses with prima che, non appena... (before that, as soon as...);
      • in the conditional clauses with qualora, purché, nel caso in cui... (if, in case, as long as...).
      Examples Translation
      Credo che Mattia sia ancora a Parigi. I think that Mattia is still in Paris.
      Ho chiamato il taxi affinché tu possa arrivare a casa più in fretta. I have called a cab so that you will reach your home faster.
      Benché egli sia il figlio di mia zia, lo reputo un fratello. Even if he is my aunt's son, I threat him like a brother.
      Prima che sia troppo tardi, vieni con noi! Before it is too late, come with us!
      Ti ascolterò, purché tu mi dica la verità. I will listen to you only if you are honest.

      How to conjugate the congiuntivo presente in Italian

      Below we will see how the present subjunctive in Italian is formed.

      Regular verbs in Italian present subjunctive

      Regular verbs in Italian present subjunctive are formed through specific endings. These endings are different according to the conjugations (-are, -ere, -ire).

      Verbs of -are conjugation

      Guardare (to look at, to watch)






      (Che) io



      Nonostante io guardi sempre la partita, non conosco tutti i giocatori.

      Even though I always watch the football game, I don't remember all the players' names.

      (Che) tu



      Non so se la guardi con occhi diversi, ma lei ormai è a disagio.

      I don't know if you are looking at her differently, but she feels uncomfortable by now.

      (Che) egli / ella



      Benché ella guardi spesso sé stessa con lucidità, talvolta è proprio irrazionale.

      Although she is looking at herself with a clear mind, sometimes she is really irrational.

      (Che) noi



      Non appena guardiamo i difetti degli altri, dimentichiamo i nostri.

      As soon as we look at the others' flaws, we forget having them too.

      (Che) voi



      È importante che guardiate i dettagli del quadro per capire lo stile dell'artista.

      It is important for you to look closely at the picture details in order to understand the painter style.

      (Che) essi /esse



      Nonostante guardino sempre prima di attraversare la strada, spesso i pedoni sono vittima di incidenti.

      Although pedestrians always look around before they cross the street, it's often dangerous for them.


      Verbs of -ere conjugation

      Temere (to be afraid of, to fear)
        Root Ending Example Translation
      (Che) io tem -a Penso che il mio gatto tema il rumore del vento. I think my cat is afraid of the sound of the wind.
      (Che) tu tem -a Mi auguro che tu non tema gli insetti. I hope you are not afraid of the insects.
      (Che) egli / ella tem -a Benché la loro figlia non tema il buio, la lasciano dormire con una luce accesa. Even though their daughter is not afraid of the dark, they let her sleep with the light on.
      (Che) noi tem -iamo* Ci rassicurano affinché noi non temiamo il peggio. They are reassuring us iso that we don't fear the worst.
      (Che) voi tem -iate* Non è necessario che voi lo temiate. It is not necessary for you to fear that.
      (Che) essi / esse tem -ano Non credo proprio che loro ci temano. I don't believe they are afraid of us.


      Verbs of -ire conjugation

      Sentire (to hear)
        Root Ending Example Translation
      (Che) io sent -a Fanno sempre in modo che io non li senta uscire al mattino. They always make sure that I don't hear them leaving in the morning.
      (Che) tu sent -a

      È molto strano che tu non lo senta.

      It's really strange you aren't able to hear it.
      (Che) egli / ella sent -a Voglio che mi senta! I want her to hear me!
      (Che) noi sent -iamo* Nonostante non ci sentiamo tutti i giorni, so che mi vuole bene. Even though we are not constantly in contact, I know she cares about me.
      (Che) voi sent -iate* Forse ritiene che voi lo sentiate. Maybe he thinks you can hear him.
      (Che) essi / esse sent -ano Benché non mi sentano, ho paura di cosa potrebbero pensare. Although they can't hear me, I am afraid of what they could think about me.


      enlightenedRemember! The Italian present subjunctive uses the same suffix of the presente indicativo for the 1° plural person (e.g. -iamo) and the same suffix for the 2° plural person in all the conjugations (-iate).

      Irregular verbs in Italian present subjunctive

      In Italian, there are many irregular verbs that don't follow any inflectional pattern or any grammatical rule. These verbs have to be studied by heart. Nonetheless, they can be gathered together inside the conjugation groups due to their infinitive suffixes (-are, -ere, -ire).

      Let's briefly see some examples.

      Verbs of -are conjugation

      The main and only irregular verbs of the 1° conjugation (their infinitive form ends with -are suffix) are: dare (to give), stare (to stay), andare (to go), fare (to do).

      Dare (to give)
        Verb form Example Translation
      (Che) io dia Vuole che gli dia il mio numero. She wants me to give her my number.
      (Che) tu dia

      Pensa che tu dia confidenza agli estranei.

      He thinks you are to much friendly with strangers.
      (Che) egli / ella dia Dia a suo fratello quel che le pare! Let her give her brother what she wants!
      (Che) noi diamo Temono che diamo tutti i vestiti vecchi in beneficienza. They're afraid that we give all the old clothes for charity.
      (Che) voi diate Prima che diate via quelle scarpe, controllatene lo stato. Before you will give away those shoes, check their status.
      (Che) essi / esse diano Dubito che diano quei gadget gratis. I doubt that they are giving those gadgets for free.


      Stare (to stay, to be)
        Verb form Example Translation
      (Che) io stia Pensi che io stia qui a non far nulla? Do you think I am here doing nothing? 
      (Che) tu stia Perché tu stia bene, devi prenderti una pausa. You have to take a break to be fine.
      (Che) egli / ella stia Mi chiedo se stia bene. I wonder if she is fine.
      (Che) noi stiamo Pensate sempre che noi stiamo troppo tempo per conto nostro. You always think that we are staying too much time on our own.
      (Che) voi stiate Per me è davvero importante che voi stiate bene qui. It's really important to me that you are fine here.
      (Che) essi / esse stiano Sono sicuro che stiano qui! I'm sure they are staying here!


      Andare (to go)
        Verb form Example Translation
      (Che) io vada Desidera che io vada via per un po'. She wish I went away for a while.
      (Che) tu vada Non voglio che tu vada alla festa senza di me. I don't want you to go to the party without me.
      (Che) egli / ella vada Dubito che vada a Manchester questa estate. I doubt she'll go to Manchester this summer.
      (Che) noi andiamo

      È meglio che andiamo via da qui.

      It's better for us to go away from here.
      (Che) voi andiate Prima che andiate, potreste gettare via la spazzatura? Before you go, could you throw away the trash?
      (Che) essi / esse vadano Nonostante vadano di fretta, non dimenticano mai di salutare. Even though they always go away quickly, they never forget their goodbyes.


      Fare (to do, to make)
        Verb form Example Translation
      (Che) io faccia Pensa che io faccia troppo spesso la doccia. He thinks I take the shower too often.
      (Che) tu faccia Per evitare che tu faccia troppi sforzi, sono venuta ad aiutarti. I've come to help you to avoid you'll make a great deal of effort.
      (Che) egli / ella faccia Dicono che la plastica non faccia bene all'ambiente. They say plastic isn't good for the environment.
      (Che) noi facciamo Ci stanno chiedendo cosa facciamo. They're asking us what we are doing.
      (Che) voi facciate Temo facciate tardi di nuovo. I'm afraid you will be late again.
      (Che) essi / essa facciano Non ho idea di cosa facciano. I don't have a clue of what they're doing.


      Verbs of -ere conjugation

      The 2° conjugation (infinitive form ends with -ere suffix) of presente congiuntivo is probably the richest of irregular forms; here we have:

      • very common verbs: potere (to can), dovere (to must), sapere (to know), volere (to want);
      • the -gliere verbs: scegliere (to choose), togliere (to remove), cogliere (to grab);
      • other verbs: tradurre (to translate), rimanere (to remain), sedere (to sit), bere (to drink), porre (to put).
      Main irregular verbs for the Italian present subjunctive (2° conjugation)
        Potere (to can) Dovere (to must) Sapere (to know) Volere (to want) Scegliere (to choose) Porre (to put) Rimanere (to remain) Bere (to drink) Sedere (to sit)
      (Che) io possa debba sappia voglia scelga ponga rimanga beva sieda
      (Che) tu possa debba sappia voglia scelga ponga rimanga beva sieda
      (Che) egli / ella possa debba sappia voglia scelga ponga rimanga beva sieda
      (Che) noi possiamo dobbiamo sappiamo vogliamo scegliamo poniamo rimaniamo beviamo sediamo
      (Che) voi possiate dobbiate sappiate vogliate scegliate poniate rimaniate beviate sediate
      (Che) essi / esse possano debbano sappiano vogliano scelgano pongano rimangano bevano siedano


      Verbs of -ire conjugation

      We can divide the 3° conjugation verbs (ending with -ire suffix) in two main groups:

      • verbs with the -isc- affix: finire (to finish), agire (to act), tradire (to betray), capire (to understand);
      • other verbs: dire (to say), uscire (to exit), morire (to die), venire ​(to come), udire (to hear), salire (to go up).
      Main irregular verbs for the Italian present subjunctive (3° conjugation)
        Finire (to finish) Dire (to say) Uscire (to exit) Morire (to die) Venire (to come) Udire (to hear)
      (Che) io finisca dica esca muoia venga oda
      (Che) tu finisca dica esca muoia venga oda
      (Che) egli / ella finisca dica esca muoia venga oda
      (Che) noi finiamo diciamo usciamo moriamo veniamo udiamo
      (Che) voi finiate diciate usciate moriate veniate udiate
      (Che) essi / esse finiscano dicano escano muoiano vengano odano


      The auxiliary verbs in Italian present subjunctive: essere / avere

      Essere (to be) and avere (to have) are the main auxiliary verbs in Italian.

      To be: che io sia

      Essere is the most irregular verb in Italian. Let's see the following examples.

        Verb form Example Translation
      (Che) io sia Benché io sia altruista, c'è un limite a tutto. Although I am a generous person, there is a limit to everything.
      (Che) tu sia Non posso credere che sia tu! I can't believe you are the one!
      (Che) egli / ella sia Credi sia lui la persona che cercano? Do you think he is the one they're looking for?
      (Che) noi siamo Penso che siamo nel posto giusto. I think we are in the right place.
      (Che) voi siate Spero voi siate sicuri di ciò che fate. I hope you are sure of what you are doing.
      (Che) essi / esse siano Dubito che siano così antipatici come sembrano. I am not sure they are so unpleasant as they seem.


      To have: che io abbia

      Avere forms the present subjunctive irregularly as well.

        Verb form Example Translation
      (Che) io abbia Non credere che io non abbia sonno! Don't think that I am not tired!
      (Che) tu abbia Ritengo che tu abbia ragione. I think you are right.
      (Che) egli / ella abbia Che abbia perso le chiavi? Would he have lost his keys?
      (Che) noi abbiamo Direi che abbiamo tutto. I suppose we have everything.
      (Che) voi abbiate Penso che abbiate torto. I think you are wrong.
      (Che) essi / esse abbiano Non credo che abbiano le forze.  I don't believe they are strong enough.