• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)

    Italian alphabet and pronunciation

    Italian alphabet letters

    There are 26 letters in the Italian alphabet: 16 consonants, 5 consonants to write foreign words, and 5 vowels.

    A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

    Letter Italian name Example
    A  a as in father

    Ape (Bee)

    B  as in been

    Bicicletta (Bycicle)

    C  as in cheers

    Cane, Cena (Dog, Dinner)

    D  as in deep

    Dado (Dice)

    E e as in better

    Elefante (Elephant)

    F effe as in effective

    Foglio (Sheet)

    G gi as in giant

    Gatta, Giorno (Female cat, Day)

    H acca, always mute Hotel 
    I i as in beer

    Indice (Index)

    J gei as in Jay Jeans 
    K kappa Koala 
    L elle as in Ellen Luna (Moon)
    M emme as in lemme Mamma (Mom)
    N enne Natura (Nature)
    O o as in odd Orologio (Clock)
    P as in piece Porta (Door)
    Q qu as in quality Quaderno (Notebook)
    R erre Rosso (Red)
    S esse Strada (Road)
    T as in t-shirt Tavolo (Table)
    U u as in good Uva (Grape)
    V as in Venus Volare (Fly)
    W vu doppia Wurstel
    X ics Xilofono (Xylophone)
    Y ipsilon Yogurt (Yoghurt)
    Z zeta Zucca (Pumpkin)

     

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    Italian consonants and pronunciation

    Italian consonants similar to English

    Let's go through some Italian consonants that share similar features with English consonants.

    Letter Italian English
    B as in Butter Bambola Doll
    D as in Dad Domanda Question
    F as in Fun Fiore Flower
    L as in Love Lento Slow
    M as in Mum Matita Pencil
    N as in Number Natura Nature
    P as in Power Palla Ball
    Q as in Quantity Quando When
    S as in Same Stivale Boot
    T as in Time Tesoro Treasure
    V as in Very Vittoria Victory

     

    Italian consonants with different pronunciation

    Let's now outline some differences between Italian and English consonants.

    C and G in Italian

    The pronunciation of C and G depends on the letter that follow.

    C/G + e, i : sweet sound Cena (Dinner), Gita (Trip)
    C/G + a, o, u: hard sound Casa (House), Golfo (Gulf)
    C/G + H + e, i: hard sound Chiedere (Ask); Ghepardo (Cheetah)

     

    H in Italian

    The H in Italian is always mute. However, it produces a hard sound if it's after C or G and followed by certain vowels.

    H No H
    Ricchi (rich, plural) Ricci (Curls/Curly, plural)
    Cechi (blind, plural) Ceci (chickpeas)

     

    R in Italian

    The Italian R has a slightly different sound than in English and it's called the "Rolling R".
    It's pronounced by flipping your tongue just behind the upper front row of your teeth.
     

    Italian English
    Ragno Spider
    Ragazzo Boy
    Rosa Pink

     

    Z in Italian

    Z is pronounced either dz or ts, depending on the word.

    Listen to the following examples.

    Z as ts Z as dz
    Pazzo (Crazy) Zio (Uncle)
    Grazie (Thank you) Mezzo (Means/Half)

     

    Italian vowels and pronunciation

    Italian vowel chart

    Here's a list of the 6 Italian vowels.

    Vowel Example
    A Animale (Animal)
    E Entrata (Entrance)
    Inizio (Beginning)
    O Orso (Bear)
    U Unione (Union)

     

    enlightened A good rule of thumb: all Italian words usually end with a vowel.

    Italian vowels with accents

    The Italian language also includes a set of accented vowels:

    Vowel Example

    Á 

    Città (City)

    É 

    Caffé (Coffee)

    Í 

    Martedì (Tuesday)

    Ó 

    Mangeró (I will eat)

    Ú

     Ragú (Italian meat sauce)


    Italian pronunciation rules

    Unlike English or French, all the letters in an Italian word are generally pronounced and it's relatively easy to instantly know the pronunciation of any new word.

    Keep in mind that pronunciation might vary from Italian region to Italian region.