• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Present perfect (passato prossimo) in Italian

    The present perfect (passato prossimo) belongs to the indicative mood.

    Definition and usage of the present perfect in Italian (passato prossimo)

    The passato prossimo is one of the most used compound past tenses in Italian. It is used to express:

    1. an action that took place in the recent past.
    2. an action that took place in the past but that still has ties to the present

    Example:

    • Ieri ho guardato un film (Yesterday I watched a movie)
    • Sono stato in Portogallo tre volte (I have been to Portugal three times)

    enlightenedIn Northern Italy people tend to always use the passato prossimo.
          In Southern Italy people tend to use the passato remoto (absolute past) more.

    Marker words that refer to the passato prossimo

    Marker words that indicate the passato prossimo are:

    Example Translation
    Ieri Yesterday
    Ieri mattina/pomeriggio/sera Yesterday morning/afternoon/evening
    Due minuti/ore/giorni fa Two minutes/hours/days ago
    Questa mattina This morning
    Prima Before
    Già Already
    Appena Just

    Example: 

    • Ieri sera ho mangiato la pizza (Yesterday evening I ate pizza).
    • Ho appena finito i compiti (I have just finished my homework).

    Conjugation of the passato prossimo

    Passato prossimo is formed by two verbs:

    1. Present indicative of the auxiliary verb (essere or avere),
    2. Past participle* of the main verb.

    *enlightenedPast participle is important because regular and irregular verbs have different forms.

    Passato prossimo of regular verbs in Italian

    In order to conjugate the present perfect in Italian, it is important to know how the past participle is formed.

    Regular verbs always form the past participle by adding the endings -ato, -uto, -ito to the root. 
    Here you can find a helping chart:

      Verb Root Ending
    -are conjugation

    Parlare (to speak)

    Giocare (to play)

    parl

    gioc

    ato

    ato

    -ere conjugation

    Vendere (to sell)

    Sapere (to know)

    vend

    sap

    uto

    uto

    -ire conjugation

    Finire (to finish)

    Sentire (to feel/listen/hear)

    fin

    sent

    ito

    ito

     

    Let's now conjugate the regular verbs parlare, vendere and finire in the passato prossimo tense:

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Here is the conjugation of the verb parlare:

    Example parlare (to speak)

      Auxiliary verb Past participle Example Translation
    Io ho parlato Io ho parlato con Maria ieri I spoke to Maria yesterday
    Tu hai parlato Tu hai parlato con Maria ieri You spoke to Maria yesterday
    Egli/Ella ha parlato Egli ha parlato con Maria ieri He spoke to Maria yesterday
    Noi abbiamo parlato Noi abbiamo parlato con Maria ieri We spoke to Maria yesterday
    Voi avete parlato Voi avete parlato con Maria ieri You spoke to Maria yesterday
    Essi/Esse hanno parlato Essi hanno parlato con Maria ieri They spoke to Maria yesterday

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Here is the conjugation of the verb vendere:

    Example vendere (to sell)

      Auxiliary verb Past participle Example Translation
    Io ho venduto Io ho venduto dei pomodori I sold some tomatoes
    Tu hai venduto Tu hai venduto dei pomodori You sold some tomatoes
    Egli/Ella ha venduto Egli ha venduto dei pomodori He sold some tomatoes
    Noi abbiamo venduto Noi abbiamo venduto dei pomodori We sold some tomatoes
    Voi avete venduto Voi avete venduto dei pomodori You sold some tomatoes
    Essi/Esse hanno venduto Essi hanni venduto dei pomodori They sold some tomatoes

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Here is the conjugation of the verb finire:

    Example finire (to finish)

      Auxiliary verb Past participle Example Translation
    Io ho finito Io ho finito i compiti I finished the homework
    Tu hai finito Tu hai finito i compiti You finished the homework
    Egli/Ella ha finito Egli ha finito i compiti He finished the homework
    Noi abbiamo finito Noi abbiamo finito i compiti We finished the homework
    Voi avete finito Voi avete finito i compiti You finished the homework
    Essi/Esse hanno finito Essi hanno finito i compiti They finished the homework

     

    Passato prossimo of irregular verbs in Italian

    Let's now briefly see how the past participle of irregular verbs is formed.
    Unlike regular verbs, irregular verbs do not follow grammatical rules to form the past participle. These verbs have to be studied by heart.
    Here is a list of the main irregular forms of the past participle:

    Infinite Past participle
    Aprire (to open) Aperto
    Correre (to run) Corso
    Rimanere (to remain) Rimasto
    Apparire (to appear) Apparso
    Chiudere (to close) Chiuso
    Chiedere (to ask) Chiesto
    Dire (to say) Detto
    Prendere (to take) Preso
    Leggere (to read) Letto
    Perdere (to lose) Perso
    Vedere (to see) Visto

     

    Example: 

    • Tu hai letto due libri in due mesi (You have read two books in two months)
    • Noi abbiamo chiesto informazioni all'ufficio turistico (We asked for some information at the tourist office)
    • Mia nonna ha aperto la porta (My grandmother opened the door)

    The passato prossimo of transitive and intransitive verbs (avere or essere?)

    As you already know, transitive verbs can be followed by an object.
    e.g. Tu canti una canzone (You sing a song)
    Intransitive verbs cannot be followed by an object.
    e.g. Luca ride (Luca laughs)

    All transitive verbs use the auxiliary verbs "avere" to form the passato prossimo.

    • Io ho mangiato la pizza (I ate pizza)
    • Voi avete suonato la chitarra (You played the guitar)

    The majority of intransitive verbs use the auxiliary verb "essere" to form the passato prossimo.

    • Noi siamo andati al cinema ieri (We went to the cinema last night)
    • Marco e Marta sono partiti due ore fa (Marco and Marta left two hours ago)

    enlightenedWhen the passato prossimo if formed with the auxiliary verb "essere", the past participle must agree with the gender and number of the subject.
    e.g:   Giulia è andata a casa (Giulia went home)
              Edoardo è andato a casa (Edoardo went home)
              Edoardo e Giulia sono andati a casa (Edoardo and Giulia went home)

     

    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    Here is how the auxiliary verbs essere and avere form the passato prossimo:

      Essere Avere
    Io sono stato/a ho avuto
    Tu sei stato/a hai avuto
    Egli/Ella è stato/a ha avuto
    Noi siamo stati/e abbiamo avuto
    Voi siete stati/e avete avuto
    Essi/Esse sono stati/i hanno avuto

     

    Example:

    • Lucia ha avuto un figlio tre giorni fa (Lucia had a baby three days ago)
    • Mara è stata a casa mia ieri (Mara was at my house yesterday)

    Now don't forget to try our exercises to test what you have learned!

    Exercises

    Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the passato prossimo

    Choose the correct form of the auxiliary verb