• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere)

    What is the second conjugation of regular verbs (-ere verbs)?

    In Italian all verbs that belong to the second conjugation end in -ere.

    Some regular verbs in Italian that belong to this conjugation are credere (to believe), ricevere (to receive), vendere (to sell), temere (to fear), battere (to beat).

    Characteristics of the second conjugation

    Despite being regular verbs, of the second conjugation have peculiarities.
    Here are the main characteristics:

    Verbs that have two conjugations in the passato remoto

    Some verbs of the second conjugation have two conjugations for the 1st and 3rd person singular and the 3rd person plural of the indicativo passato remoto:

      1st model 2nd model
    Io temei temetti
    Tu temesti temesti
    Egli/Ella temé temette
    Noi tememmo tememmo
    Voi temeste temeste
    Essi/Esse temerono temettero


    enlightenedBoth these conjugations are correct and can be used regardless of the verb. Despite this, keep in mind that with verbs whose root ends with -t, it is better to use the first model of conjugation.
    Example: It is better to say io battei than io battetti.


    Verbs in -cere and -gere

    • Verbs that end in -cere and -gere are pronounced with a hard sound when the "c" or "g" are followed by endings starting with -a or -o.
      Example: io vinco​ (I win)
      io pungo (I sting)
    • Other verbs such as cuocere (to cook), add an "i" between the root and the endings starting with -a or -o.
      Example: io cuocio (I cook)
      che essi cuociano (they cook in the subjunctive mood)
    • Verbs that end in -cere add and "i" in the past participle.
      Example: piaciuto (liked)
      cresciuto (grown up)

    Verbs that add the diphthong "uo"

    Some verbs add the diphthong "uo" to their conjugation when the syllable is tonic (the accent falls on the syllable), while when the syllable is not tonic we can have both the form with "ou" or "o".

    Io muovo
    Tu muovi
    Egli/Ella muove 
    Noi muoviamo/moviamo
    Voi muovete/movete
    Essi/Esse muovono


    Verbs that add the diphthong "ie"

    Some verbs such as possedere (to own) or tenere (to keep) add the diphthong "ie" to their conjugation when the syllable is tonic and when it ends with a vowel.

    Io possiedo tengo
    Tu possiedi tieni
    Egli/Ella possiede tiene
    Noi possediamo teniamo
    Voi possedete tenete
    Essi/Esse possiedono tengono


    Verbs that end in -gnere

    Verbs that end in -gnere can either maintain the "i" of the endings -iamo and -iate of the indicativo and congiuntivo presente or they can be written without the "i".
    Example: noi spegniamo and noi spegnamo are both correct.
    che voi spegniate or che voi spegnate are both correct.

    enlightenedDespite both forms being correct, it is probably better to use the one that maintains the "i" because in so doing the ending is not altered.


    How to conjugate regular -ere verbs in Italian?

    Here is the conjugation for regular verbs of the second conjugation.

    Example temere (to fear)


      Presente Passato prossimo Imperfetto Trapassato prossimo Passato remoto Trapassato remoto Futuro semplice Futuro anteriore
    Io temo ho temuto temevo avevo temuto temei/temetti ebbi temuto temerò avrò temuto
    Tu temi hai temuto temevi avevi temuto temesti avesti temuto temerai avrai temuto
    Egli/Ella teme ha temuto temeva aveva temuto temé/temette ebbe temuto temerà avrà temuto
    Noi temiamo abbiamo temuto temevamo avevamo temuto tememmo avemmo temuto temeremo avremo temuto
    Voi temete avete temuto temevate avevate temuto temeste aveste temuto temerete avrete temuto
    Essi/Esse temono hanno temuto temevano avevano temuto temerono/temettero ebbero temuto temeranno avranno temuto



      Presente Passato Imperfetto Trapassato
    (Che) io tema abbia temuto temessi avessi temuto
    (Che) tu tema abbia temuto temessi avessi temuto
    (Che) egli/ella tema abbia temuto temesse avesse temuto
    (Che) noi temiamo abbiamo temuto temessimo avessimo temuto
    (Che) voi temiate abbiate temuto temeste aveste temuto
    (Che) essi/esse temano abbiano temuto temessero avessero temuto



      Presente Passato
    Io temerei avrei temuto
    Tu temeresti avresti temuto
    Egli/Ella temerebbe avrebbe temuto
    Noi temeremmo avremmo temuto
    Voi temereste avreste temuto
    Essi/Esse temerebbero avrebbero temuto



    Io /
    Tu temi
    Egli/Ella tema
    Noi temiamo
    Voi temete
    Essi/Esse temano



    Presente Passato
    Temere Avere temuto



    Presente Passato
    Temente Temuto



    Presente Passato
    Temendo Avendo temuto



    Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs of to the second conjugation

    Drag the correct -ere verb to complete the sentences

    Next lessons

    1 Conjugation of ricevere (to receive) in Italian A lesson on the Italian verb ricevere (to receive)
    2 Conjugation of vendere (to sell) in Italian This is a course about the conjugation of the verb vendere (to sell) in Italian.