Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere)
- 1.What is the second conjugation of regular verbs (-ere verbs)?
- 1.1.Characteristics of the second conjugation
- 1.1.1.Verbs that have two conjugations in the passato remoto
- 1.1.2.Verbs in -cere and -gere
- 1.1.3.Verbs that add the diphthong "uo"
- 1.1.4.Verbs that add the diphthong "ie"
- 1.1.5.Verbs that end in -gnere
- 2.How to conjugate regular -ere verbs in Italian?
What is the second conjugation of regular verbs (-ere verbs)?
In Italian all verbs that belong to the second conjugation end in -ere.
Some regular verbs in Italian that belong to this conjugation are credere (to believe), ricevere (to receive), vendere (to sell), temere (to fear), battere (to beat).
Characteristics of the second conjugation
Despite being regular verbs, of the second conjugation have peculiarities.
Here are the main characteristics:
Verbs that have two conjugations in the passato remoto
Some verbs of the second conjugation have two conjugations for the 1st and 3rd person singular and the 3rd person plural of the indicativo passato remoto:
|1st model||2nd model|
Both these conjugations are correct and can be used regardless of the verb. Despite this, keep in mind that with verbs whose root ends with -t, it is better to use the first model of conjugation.
Example: It is better to say io battei than io battetti.
Verbs in -cere and -gere
- Verbs that end in -cere and -gere are pronounced with a hard sound when the "c" or "g" are followed by endings starting with -a or -o.
Example: io vinco (I win)
io pungo (I sting)
- Other verbs such as cuocere (to cook), add an "i" between the root and the endings starting with -a or -o.
Example: io cuocio (I cook)
che essi cuociano (they cook in the subjunctive mood)
- Verbs that end in -cere add and "i" in the past participle.
Example: piaciuto (liked)
cresciuto (grown up)
Verbs that add the diphthong "uo"
Some verbs add the diphthong "uo" to their conjugation when the syllable is tonic (the accent falls on the syllable), while when the syllable is not tonic we can have both the form with "ou" or "o".
Verbs that add the diphthong "ie"
Some verbs such as possedere (to own) or tenere (to keep) add the diphthong "ie" to their conjugation when the syllable is tonic and when it ends with a vowel.
Verbs that end in -gnere
Verbs that end in -gnere can either maintain the "i" of the endings -iamo and -iate of the indicativo and congiuntivo presente or they can be written without the "i".
Example: noi spegniamo and noi spegnamo are both correct.
che voi spegniate or che voi spegnate are both correct.
Despite both forms being correct, it is probably better to use the one that maintains the "i" because in so doing the ending is not altered.
How to conjugate regular -ere verbs in Italian?
Here is the conjugation for regular verbs of the second conjugation.
Example temere (to fear)
|Presente||Passato prossimo||Imperfetto||Trapassato prossimo||Passato remoto||Trapassato remoto||Futuro semplice||Futuro anteriore|
|Io||temo||ho temuto||temevo||avevo temuto||temei/temetti||ebbi temuto||temerò||avrò temuto|
|Tu||temi||hai temuto||temevi||avevi temuto||temesti||avesti temuto||temerai||avrai temuto|
|Egli/Ella||teme||ha temuto||temeva||aveva temuto||temé/temette||ebbe temuto||temerà||avrà temuto|
|Noi||temiamo||abbiamo temuto||temevamo||avevamo temuto||tememmo||avemmo temuto||temeremo||avremo temuto|
|Voi||temete||avete temuto||temevate||avevate temuto||temeste||aveste temuto||temerete||avrete temuto|
|Essi/Esse||temono||hanno temuto||temevano||avevano temuto||temerono/temettero||ebbero temuto||temeranno||avranno temuto|
|(Che) io||tema||abbia temuto||temessi||avessi temuto|
|(Che) tu||tema||abbia temuto||temessi||avessi temuto|
|(Che) egli/ella||tema||abbia temuto||temesse||avesse temuto|
|(Che) noi||temiamo||abbiamo temuto||temessimo||avessimo temuto|
|(Che) voi||temiate||abbiate temuto||temeste||aveste temuto|
|(Che) essi/esse||temano||abbiano temuto||temessero||avessero temuto|
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