• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Relative pronouns (I pronomi relativi) connect phrases and sentences replacing one or more elements.

    Relative pronouns in Italian

    Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural English
    Che Che Che Che Who / which / that
    Cui Cui Cui cui Who /which / that (preceded by a preposition)
    Il quale La quale I quali Le quali Who / which / that (formal/less used)

     

    Let's analize some sentences.

    Italian English
    Il computer che mi hai regalato non funziona. The computer (that) you gave to me as a present doesn't work.
    Potrei sapere il motivo per cui state litigando? May I know the reason why you are fighting?
    Questa è la legge della quale parlavamo. This is the law we were talking about.
    This is the law of which we were talking.
    La ragazza che sta cantando è mia cugina The girl who is singing is my cousin.
    Il panino che ho mangiato per pranzo era buonissimo. The sandwich (that) I had for lunch was amazing.
    Nel Paese da cui provengo non esiste una cosa del genere. In the Country I'm from there is no such thing.
    In the Country from which I come from there is no such thing.

     

    enlightened Unlike English, Italian relative pronouns can never be omitted.

    • CORRECT: La casa che vedo è grande. (The house that I see is big)
    • WRONG: La casa vedo è grande. (The house I see is big)

    Usage of relative pronouns in Italian

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    Che (who, which, that as a connector)

    Che is a connector between different phrases with common elements; it replaces the subject or the direct object complement.

    It translates as who, which or that, depending on the context.

    It is never preceded by a preposition.

    English Italian
    Il libro che mi hai regalato è molto bello. The book (that) you gave me is very good.
    Gli avvocati che conosco sono piuttosto bravi. The lawyers (who) I know are quite capable.
    Ho letto il rapporto che hai scritto ieri. I read the report (which) you wrote yesterday.
    Vedo la casa che dicevi.  I can see the house (that) you talked about.
    Il quadro che hai dipinto è un capolavoro. The painting (that) you painted is a masterpiece.

     

    Cui (who, which, that after a preposition)

    Cui replaces the indirect complement and it is always preceded by a preposition.

    It translates as who, which, that depending on the context.

    Italian English
    L'aereo su cui viaggiamo è un Boeing 747. The plane we're travelling on is a Boeing 747.
    The plane on which we travel is a Boeing 747.
    La cioccolata di cui vado matto è fatta in Svizzera. The chocolate I go crazy about is made in Switzerland.
    The chocolate of which I go crazy is made in Switzerland.
    L'Italia è un Paese a cui teniamo molto. Italy is a country we care a lot about.
    Italy is a country of which we care a lot.
    Il fatto di cui abbiamo discusso è molto grave. The event (of which) we discussed about was very serious.
    Questa è la ragione per cui ho accettato questo lavoro. This is the reason why I accepted this job.
    This is the reason for which I accepted this job.

     

    Il Quale (who, which, that in formal contexts)

    Il quale replaces the subject, the direct object complement or the indirect complements.
    This pronoun translates as who, which and that and changes according to gender and number of the element it replaces.

    Singular masculine Singlular Feminine Plural masculine Plural feminine
    Il quale La quale I quali Le quali

     

    It is considered more formal than cui or che, so it's typical of written contexts.

    Italian English
    La ditta per la quale lavoro ha sedi in tutta Europa. The firm I work for has offices all over Europe.
    The firm for which I work has offices all over Europe.
    Ti presento le ragazze con le quali vado al bar. I present you the girls whom I go to the pub with.
    Ne ho discusso con Roberto, il quale non sembra d'accordo. I talked about it with Roberto, who doesn't seem to agree.
    I fratelli Wright, ai quali si deve il primo modello di aereo. The Wright brothers, thanks to whom we had the first model of an airplane.
    Le persone alle quali telefonerai sono interessanti. The people whom you're going to phone are interesting.