• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Past perfect (trapassato prossimo) in Italian


    1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the trapassato prossimo Score -/-
    2. Fill in the blanks to complete the story Score -/-

    Definition and usage of the past perfect in Italian (trapassato prossimo)

    The trapassato prossimo is a compound tense that belongs to the indicative mood.

    • It refers to an action which took place in the past.
    • It is used to indicate an action which had finished before another action took place.


    • Quando arrivai alla stazione il treno era già partito (When I arrived at the station, the train had already left)
    • All'epoca non avevo voluto mangiare la lasagna perchè ero vegetariana (At that time I hadn't wanted to eat the lasagna because I was vegetarian)

    Usage together with other past tenses

    The trapassato prossimo can be found in sentences together with the passato prossimo, imperfetto or passato remoto

    Passato prossimo
    • Francesca non mi ha vista perchè stava chiacchierando
    • Marco ha vinto perchè si era allenato molto
    • Francesca didn't see me because she was talking
    • Marco won because he trained a lot
    • Ero stanco perchè avevo corso per due ore
    • Volevo che mi chiamasse perchè ero stato male
    • I was tired because I had run for two hours
    • I wanted her to call me because I had been sick
    Passato remoto
    • Giorgio fece un inchino perchè voleva ringraziare la folla
    • Luca non guidò perchè aveva bevuto troppo
    • Giorgio took a bow because he wanted to thank the crowd
    • Luca did not drive because he had drunk too much


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    Conjugation of the trapassato prossimo

    The trapassato prossimo is formed as follows:

    Imperfetto of the auxiliary verb + past participle (participio passato)

    Conjugation of regular verbs in the trapassato prossimo

    Regular verbs form the trapassato prossimo as follows:

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Example mangiare (to eat)

      Imperfetto auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io avevo mangiato Io avevo mangato una fragola I had eaten a strawberry
    Tu avevi mangiato Tu avevi mangiato una fragola You had eaten a strawberry
    Egli/Ella aveva mangiato Egli aveva mangato una fragola He had eaten a strawberry
    Noi avevamo mangiato Noi avevamo mangiato una fragola We had eaten a strawberry
    Voi avevate mangiato Voi avevate mangiato una fragola You had eaten a strawberry
    Essi/Esse avevano mangiato Essi avevano mangiato una fragola They had eaten a strawberry


    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Example credere (to believe)

      Imperfetto auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io avevo creduto Io avevo creduto alla sua storia I had believed to his story
    Tu avevi creduto Tu avevi creduto alla sua storia You had believed to his story
    Egli/Ella aveva creduto Egli aveva creduto alla sua storia He had believed to his story
    Noi avevamo creduto Noi avevamo creduto alla sua storia We had believed to his story
    Voi avevate creduto Voi avevate creduto alla sua storia You had believed to his story
    Essi/Esse avevano creduto Essi avevano creduto alla sua storia They had believed to his story


    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Example partire (to leave)

      Imperfetto auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io ero partito/a* Io ero partito troppo tardi  I had left too late
    Tu eri partito/a* Tu eri partito troppo tardi You had left too late
    Egli/Ella era partito/a* Egli era partito troppo tardi He had left too late
    Noi eravamo partiti/e* Noi eravamo partiti troppo tardi We had left too late
    Voi eravate partiti/e* Voi eravate partiti troppo tardi You had left too late
    Essi/Esse erano partiti/e* Essi erano partiti troppo tardi They had left too late


    *enlightenedRemember that when you use the auxiliary verb essere, the participio passato must agree with the subject in gender and number!


    Conjugation of irregular verbs in the trapassato prossimo

    Here are some verbs that form the trapassato prossimo in an irregular way. The conjugation of such verbs has to be studied by heart.

      Dire (to say) Chiedere (to ask) Bere (to drink) Correggere (to correct)
    Io avevo detto avevo chiesto avevo bevuto avevo corretto
    Tu avevi detto avevi chiesto avevi bevuto avevi corretto
    Egli/Ella aveva detto aveva chiesto aveva bevuto aveva corretto
    Noi avevamo detto avevamo chiesto avevamo bevuto avevamo corretto
    Voi avevate detto avevate chiesto avevate bevuto avevate corretto
    Essi/Esse avevano detto avevano chiesto avevano bevuto avevano corretto



    • Luca aveva detto che sarebbe venuto alle 15 (Luca said he would come at 3 pm)
    • La professoressa aveva corretto tutti i nostri compiti prima delle vancenze (The teacher had corrected all our tests before the holidays)

    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    Here is the conjugation for the auxiliary verbs essere and avere in the trapassato prossimo

      Essere (to be) Avere (to have)
    Io ero stato/a avevo avuto
    Tu eri stato/a avevi avuto
    Egli/Ella era stato/a aveva avuto
    Noi eravamo stati/e avevamo avuto
    Voi eravate stati/e avevato avuto
    Essi/Esse erano stati/e avevano avuto



    • Quella mattina, Maria aveva avuto un gran mal di testa (That morning, Maria had had a bad headache)
    • Ero stato a casa tutto il fine settimana (I had been at home the whole weekend)

    Now don't forget to test your knowledge with our exercises on the trapassato prossimo!