Pronouns (I pronomi) are grammatical items that replace nouns.
Pronouns help to make the speech more fluid and avoid repetitions.
The Italian language distinguishes the following pronouns:
There are two different kinds of personal pronouns: subject pronouns and non-subject pronouns.
|Egli Esso → Lui||He|
|Ella Essa → Lei||She|
|Essi → Loro (masculine)||They|
|Esse → Loro (feminine)||They|
Remember! The third person pronouns egli, esso, ella, essa, essi, esse have been almost completely replaced by lui, lei, loro.
Here's some examples.
|Io mi chiamo Francesco, e voi?||My name is Francesco, and yours?|
|Non so cosa facciano loro||I don't know what they do.|
|Professore, Lei cosa insegna?||Professor, what do you teach?|
We can identify stressed and unstressed pronouns and also operate a further division in direct and indirect object pronouns basing on the type of complement involved.
|Stressed pronouns||Unstressed pronouns
|Lei (Her)||La Le||Le Ne|
|Loro (Them) (masculine)||Li||Gli Loro Ne|
|Loro (Them) (feminine)||Le||Gli Loro Ne|
Let's see some examples.
|Ho saputo la notizia, me l'ha già detta Fabrizio.||I heard the news, Fabrizio informed me about it.|
|Io voglio venire con voi.||I want to come with you.|
|Non mi interessa. Fate come vi pare.||I don't care. Do as you want.|
Relative pronouns are used to connect two or more parts of a sentence and to create logical links.
They correspond to who, which and that.
|Masculine singular||Feminine singular||Masculine plural||Feminine plural||English|
|Il quale||La quale||I quali||Le quali||Who/Which/That|
Take a look at the following examples.
|Oggi ho incontrato Andrea, che era con la sua ragazza.||I met Andrea today, who was with his girlfriend.|
|Ieri ho rivisto quella mia amica di cui ti avevo parlato.||Yesterday I met that friend of mine who I'd told you about.|
|Quella è la penna con la quale ho firmato il contratto.||That's the pen I signed the contract with.|
Possessive pronouns are used to specify the ownership of an object.
|Italian pronoun (Singular masculine)||English|
Let's analize some examples.
|Se hai bisogno di una bicicletta, puoi prendere la mia.||If you need a bike, you can borrow mine.|
|Pensi che la vostra idea sia meglio della nostra?||Do you think your idea is better than ours?|
|A proposito di debolezze, ognuno ha le proprie.||Speaking of weaknesses, everyone has their own.|
Demonstrative pronouns replace an element in relation to its position in time or space.
|Singular masculine||Singular feminine||Plural masculine||Plural feminine||English|
Check out the following sentences.
|Non mi piace questa tazza, prendiamo quella.||I don't like this mug, let's take that one instead.|
|Quelle sono le cose che contano.||Those are the things that count.|
|Il problema di cui ti parlavo è quello.||The problem I was talking you about was that one.|
Indefinite pronouns refer to generic quantities or elements.
|Pronoun (Singular masculine)||English|
|Troppo||Too much/too many|
Let's analize some examples.
|Tutti lo sanno.||Everybody knows.|
|Parlava coi pochi che erano venuti.||He was talking with the few people who came.|
|La cassetta delle lettere è vuota. Non c'è niente.||The mailbox is empty, there is nothing in it.|
Interrogative pronouns are used to introduce a question.
|Quale (singular masculine)||Which|
|Quanto (singular masculine)||How much/how many/how long|
Let's see some practical example.
|Quali sono i tuoi libri?||Which ones are your books?|
|Chi è quella donna che ti ha accompagnato?||Who is that woman who drove you?|
|Quali sono gli ingredienti per la torta di mele?||What are the ingredients of the apple cake?|
Reflexive pronouns are used when there is a reciprocal action between two or more subjects.
Let's analize the following senteces.
|Io mi faccio la doccia ogni giorno.||I shower everyday.|
|Non si sente bene.||He isn't feeling well.|
|Nessuno sa come si sentono.||Nobody knows how they feel.|
|1 Personal pronouns in Italian|
|2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian|
|3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...)|
|4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian|
|5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian|
|6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian|
|7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other)|
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