• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Pronouns (I pronomi) are grammatical items that replace nouns.

    Pronouns help to make the speech more fluid and avoid repetitions.

    Italian pronouns list

    The Italian language distinguishes the following pronouns:

    • Personal pronouns
    • Relative pronouns
    • Possessive pronouns
    • Demonstrative pronouns
    • Indefinite pronouns
    • Interrogative pronouns
    • Reflexive pronouns

    Personal pronouns in Italian

    There are two different kinds of personal pronouns: subject pronouns and non-subject pronouns.

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    Italian subject pronouns

    Italian English
    Io I
    Tu You
    Egli Esso → Lui He
    Ella Essa → Lei She
    Noi We
    Voi You
    Essi Loro (masculine) They
    Esse  Loro (feminine) They

     

    enlightened Remember! The third person pronouns egli, esso, ella, essa, essi, esse have been almost completely replaced by lui, lei, loro.

    Here's some examples.

    Italian  English
    Io mi chiamo Francesco, e voi? My name is Francesco, and yours?
    Non so cosa facciano loro I don't know what they do.
    Professore, Lei cosa insegna? Professor, what do you teach?

     

    Non-subject Italian pronouns

    We can identify stressed and unstressed pronouns and also operate a further division in direct and indirect object pronouns basing on the type of complement involved.

    Stressed pronouns Unstressed pronouns
    Direct object
    Unstressed pronouns
    Indirect object
    Me (Me) Mi Mi
    Te (You) Ti Ti
    Lui (Him)

    Lo Gli

    Gli Ne
    Lei (Her) La Le Le Ne
    Noi (Us) Ci  Ci
    Voi (You) Vi  Vi
    Loro (Them) (masculine) Li Gli Loro Ne
    Loro (Them) (feminine) Le Gli Loro Ne

     

    Let's see some examples.

    Italian English
    Ho saputo la notizia, me l'ha già detta Fabrizio. I heard the news, Fabrizio informed me about it.
    Io voglio venire con voi. I want to come with you.
    Non mi interessa. Fate come vi pare. I don't care. Do as you want.

     

    Relative pronouns in Italian

    Relative pronouns are used to connect two or more parts of a sentence and to create logical links.

    They correspond to who, which and that.

    Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural English
    Che Che Che Che Who/Which/That
    Cui Cui Cui Cui Who/Which/That
    Il quale La quale I quali Le quali Who/Which/That

     

    Take a look at the following examples.

    Italian English
    Oggi ho incontrato Andrea, che era con la sua ragazza. I met Andrea today, who was with his girlfriend.
    Ieri ho rivisto quella mia amica di cui ti avevo parlato. Yesterday I met that friend of mine who I'd told you about.
    Quella è la penna con la quale ho firmato il contratto. That's the pen I signed the contract with.

     

    Possessive pronouns in Italian

    Possessive pronouns are used to specify the ownership of an object.

    Italian pronoun (Singular masculine) English
    Il mio Mine
    Il tuo Yours
    Il suo His/Hers
    Il nostro Ours
    Il vostro Yours
    Il loro Theirs
    Proprio His/her own
    Altrui Somebody else's/others'

     

    Let's analize some examples.

    Italian English
    Se hai bisogno di una bicicletta, puoi prendere la mia. If you need a bike, you can borrow mine.
    Pensi che la vostra idea sia meglio della nostra? Do you think your idea is better than ours?
    A proposito di debolezze, ognuno ha le proprie. Speaking of weaknesses, everyone has their own.

     

    Demonstrative pronouns in Italian

    Demonstrative pronouns replace an element in relation to its position in time or space. 

    Singular masculine Singular feminine Plural masculine Plural feminine English
    Questo Questa Questi Queste This, These
    Quello Quella Quelli Quelle That, Those

     

    Check out the following sentences.

    Italian English
    Non mi piace questa tazza, prendiamo quella. I don't like this mug, let's take that one instead.
    Quelle sono le cose che contano. Those are the things that count.
    Il problema di cui ti parlavo è quello. The problem I was talking you about was that one.

     

    Indefinite pronouns in Italian

    Indefinite pronouns refer to generic quantities or elements.

    Pronoun (Singular masculine) English
    Uno One
    Alcuni Some
    Ciascuno Each/Each one
    Qualcosa Something, anything
    Tutto Eveything
    Tutti/Ognuno Everyone
    Chiunque Anybody
    Poco Few/little
    Tanto Much/Many
    Troppo Too much/too many
    Molto Much/Many/A lot
    Nessuno No one
    Niente/Nulla Nothing

     

    Let's analize some examples.

    Italian English
    Tutti lo sanno. Everybody knows.
    Parlava coi pochi che erano venuti. He was talking with the few people who came.
    La cassetta delle lettere è vuota. Non c'è niente. The mailbox is empty, there is nothing in it.

     

    Interrogative pronouns in Italian

    Interrogative pronouns are used to introduce a question

    Italian English
    Chi  Who
    Che/cosa/che cosa  What
    Quale (singular masculine) Which
    Quanto (singular masculine) How much/how many/how long

     

    Let's see some practical example.

    Italian English
    Quali sono i tuoi libri? Which ones are your books?
    Chi è quella donna che ti ha accompagnato? Who is that woman who drove you?
    Quali sono gli ingredienti per la torta di mele? What are the ingredients of the apple cake?

     

    Reflexive pronouns in Italian

    Reflexive pronouns are used when there is a reciprocal action between two or more subjects.

    Italian English
    Mi Myself
    Ti Yourself
    Si/ Himself/Herself/Itself
    Ci Ourselves
    Vi Yourselves
    Si/ Themselves

     

    Let's analize the following senteces.

    Italian English
    Io mi faccio la doccia ogni giorno. I shower everyday.
    Non si sente bene. He isn't feeling well.
    Nessuno sa come si sentono. Nobody knows how they feel.

    Next lessons

    1 Personal pronouns in Italian A lesson on personal pronouns in Italian.
    2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian A lesson on relative pronouns in Italian
    3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) A lesson on possessive pronouns in Italian
    4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian Italian demonstrative pronouns: definition, usages and exercises
    5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian Italian indefinite pronouns
    6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian Italian interrogative pronouns (who, what, ...)
    7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) Reflexive pronouns in Italian