• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The Italian future perfect (futuro anteriore) is a compound tense that belongs to the indicative mood.

    Definition and usage of the Italian future perfect (futuro anteriore)

    The futuro anteriore is used to refer to an action that will take place in the future, usually before another action introduced by the futuro semplice.


    • Quando Martin arriverà alla fermata, il pullman sarà già partito (When Martin will arrive at the bus stop, the bus will have already left)
    • Fra due anni avrò imparato lo spagnolo (In two years I will have learned Spanish)

    enlightenedIn everyday language there is a tendency to use the futuro semplice instead of the futuro anteriore.
    E.g. Quando Giorgio arriverà, potremo pranzare (When Giorgio comes, we will have lunch)
    Quando inizierà il film, bisognerà fare silenzio (When the film starts, we will have to be silent)


    The futuro anteriore can also be used to make suggestions or hypothesis about an action that took place in the past (futuro epistemico).

    • Le luci della casa sono accese: avranno dimenticato di spegnerle (The house lights are on: they must have forgotten to turn them off)
    • Luisa non è venuta al cinema: sarà stata impegnata (Luisa didn't come to the cinema: she must have been busy)

    Marker words that indicate the futuro anteriore

    Here are some marker words that can be found with the futuro anteriore.

    Example Translation
    Dopo che After
    Quando When
    Non appena As soon as


    • Dopo che avrò chiamato il dottore, potrò uscire (After I will have called the doctor, I will leave the house)
    • Non appena saranno arrivati a Madeira, ci chiameranno (As soon as they will have arrived in Madeira, they will call us)


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    Conjugation of the futuro anteriore

    The italian futuro anteriore is formed as follows:

    Futuro semplice of the auxiliary verb essere/avere + participio passato of the main verb

    Conjugation of regular verbs in the futuro anteriore

    Regular verbs form the futuro anteriore as follows:

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Example giocare (to play)

      Futuro semplice auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io avrò giocato Io avrò giocato a calcio I will have played football
    Tu avrai giocato Tu avrai giocato a calcio You will have played football
    Egli/Ella avrà giocato Egli avrà giocato a calcio He will have played football
    Noi avremo giocato Noi avremo giocato a calcio We will have played football
    Voi avrete giocato Voi avrete giocato a calcio You will have played football
    Essi/Esse avranno giocato Essi avranno giocato a calcio They will have played football


    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Example credere (to believe)

      Futuro semplice auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io avrò creduto Io avrò creduto ad una bugia I will have believed a lie
    Tu avrai creduto Tu avrai creduto ad una bugia You will have believed a lie
    Egli/Ella avrà creduto Egli avrà creduto ad una bugia He will have believed a lie
    Noi avremo creduto Noi avremo creduto ad una bugia We will have believed a lie
    Voi avrete creduto Voi avrete creduto ad una bugia You will have believed a lie
    Essi/Esse avranno creduto Essi avranno creduto ad una bugia They will have believed a lie


    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Example dormire (to sleep)

      Futuro semplice auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io avrò dormito Io avrò dormito per tre ore I will have slept for three hours
    Tu avrai dormito Tu avrai dormito per tre ore You will have slept for three hours
    Egli/Ella avrà dormito Egli avrà dormito per tre ore He will have slept for three hours
    Noi avremo dormito Noi avremo dormito per tre ore We will have slept for three hours
    Voi avrete dormito Voi avrete dormito per tre ore You will have slept for three hours
    Essi/Esse avranno dormito Essi avranno dormito per tre ore They will have slept for three hours


    Conjugation of irregular verbs in the futuro anteriore

    Here are some verbs that form the futuro anteriore in an irregular way. Such verbs have to be studied by heart.

      Dire (to say) Chiedere (to ask) Bere (to drink) Scegliere (to choose)  Perdere (to lose) Uccidere (to kill)
    Io avrò detto avrò chiesto avrò bevuto avrò scelto avrò perso avrò ucciso
    Tu avrai detto avrai chiesto avrai bevuto avrai scelto avrai perso avrai ucciso
    Egli/Ella avrà detto avrà chiesto avrà bevuto avrà scelto avrà perso avrà ucciso
    Noi avremo detto avremo chiesto avremo bevuto avremo scelto avremo perso avremo ucciso
    Voi avrete detto avrete chiesto avrete bevuto avrete scelto avrete perso avrete ucciso
    Essi/Esse avranno detto avranno chiesto avranno bevuto avranno scelto avranno perso avranno ucciso


    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    The auxiliary verbs essere and avere form the futuro anteriore as follows:

      Essere (to be) Avere (to have)
    Io sarò stato/a* avrò avuto
    Tu sarai stato/a* avrai avuto
    Egli/Ella sarà stato/a* avrà avuto
    Noi saremo stati/e* avremo avuto
    Voi sarete stati/e* avrete avuto
    Essi/Esse saranno stati/e* avranno avuto


    *enlightenedRemember that when you use the auxiliary verb essere, the participio passato must agree with the subject in gender and number!


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