• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Modifying suffixes in Italian

    In Italian we can use suffixes to add new meanings to the original word.
    These constructions are used in informal contexts only.

    We can distinguish between four different classes of altered nouns:

    • Diminutivi (diminutives)
    • Vezzeggiativi (terms of endearment)
    • Accrescitivi (augmentatives)
    • Dispregiativi (pejoratives)


    Diminutivi (Italian diminutives)

    This kind of modification conveys the idea of smallness.
    These constructions are pretty common in baby talk.

    Masculin singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
    -ino -ina -ini -ine
    -etto -etta -etti -ette
    -ello -ella -elli -elle
    -icino -icina -icini -icine
    -olino -olina -olini -oline
    -icello -icella -icelli -icelle
    -icciolo -icciola -iccioli -icciole
    -otto -otta -otti -otte

     

    • Guarda quella stellina in cielo! (Look at that little star in the sky!)
    • Una famosa canzone dice "C'era una casetta piccolina in Canada". (A famous song goes "There was a tiny little house in Canada".)
    • Nel presepe c'è un asinello. (There is a little donkey in the Nativity scene.)
    • È possibile avere uno sconticino sul prezzo finale? (Is it possible to get a little discount on the final price?)
    • Nell'acquario ci sono due pesciolini rossi. (There are two little goldfishes in the acquarium.)

     

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    Vezzeggiativi (Italian terms of endearment)

    Vezzeggiativi convey the idea of tenderness, sympathy and also smallness.
    This kind of altered nouns is typical for baby talk.

    Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
    -uccio -uccia -ucci -ucce
    -uzzo -uzza -uzzi -uzze
    -olo -ola -oli -ole
    -cino -cina -cini -cine
    -acchiotto -acchiotta -acchiotti -acchiotte

     

    • C'era un lettuccio sulla destra e un armadio sulla sinistra.
      (There were a little bed on the right and a closet on the left.)
    • I miei nonni abitavano nella viuzza che arriva fino in piazza.
      (My grandparents lived in the small street that leads to the square.)
    • Il quokka è una bestiola che vive in Australia occidentale.
      (The quokka is a little critter that lives in Western Australia.)
    • L'orsacchiotto che avevo quando ero piccolo si chiamava Chicco.
      (The teddy bear I had when I was a child was called Chicco.)
    • Marco è molto dolce con la sua ragazza: la chiama sempre "mogliettina" anche se non sono ancora sposati.
      (Marco is very sweet towards his girlfriend: he always call her his "wifey" even though they aren't married yet.)


    Accrescitivi (Italian augmentatives)

    This kind of nouns conveys a sense of bigness in size.

    Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
    -one -ona -oni -one

     

    • Quella casona mi mette paura.
      (That big house makes me afraid.)

    • Devo studiare questo librone per l'esame!
      (I have to study this enormous book for the exam!)

    • La tua è proprio una manona!
      (Yours is a really big hand!)


    Dispregiativi (Italian pejoratives)

    This kind of suffixes expresses a sense of contempt and dislike.

    Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
    -accio -accia -acci -acce
    -astro -astra -astri -astre
    -ucolo -ucola -ucoli -ucole
    -iciattolo -iciattola -iciattoli -iciattole

     

    Depending on the context, the suffix -astro can also lose its negative connotation.

    Italian English
    Rosso    → Rossastro Red       → Reddish
    Blu         → Bluastro Blue       → Bluish
    Fratello  → Fratellastro Brother  → Step-brother
    Figlio      → Figliastro Son        → Step-son

     

    • Non vuoi mica indossare quel cappellaccio?
      (You aren't going to wear that hideous hat, are you?)
    • Chi è questo poetastro?
      (Who is this miserable poet?)
    • Credo che sia una ideaccia. 
      (I think it's a terrible idea.)

     

    Combination of suffixes

    Modifying suffixes can be combined to mix different meanings, but only in informal contexts.

    Italian English
    Casa → Cas - ett - ina House → Tiny little house
    Gonna → Gonn - ell - ina Skirt → Tiny little skirt
    Foglio → Fogli - ett - ino Sheet → Tiny sheet

     

    Exceptions

    False alterates

    A lot of words look like alterates, but they are not.

    Italian  English
    Cartone → not a big Carta (Paper) Cardboard
    Tacchino → not a tiny Tacco (High heel) Turkey
    Collina → not a tiny Collo (Neck) Hill
    Limone → not a big Limo (Mire) Lemon

     

    Changes in gender

    Other than the meaning, in some cases suffixes can also change the gender of the original word.

    Italian English
    La donna → Il donnone Woman → The big woman
    La febbre → Il febbrone Fever → Very high fever