• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses)

    If-clauses are used to express a possible consequence. 
    There are 3 main kinds and each one conveys a different degree of probability.

    • Type 1 conditional (Reality If-Clause)

    • Type 2 conditional (Possibility If-Clause) 

    • Type 3 conditional (Impossibility If-Clause)

    General structure

    The structure is essentially the same for all three types of if-clauses.

    If-clauses are introduced by the adverb Se (If).

    The If-Clause can precede or follow the main clause.

    enlightened If-clauses (1): Se + Clause + Comma + Main clause

    Italian English
    Se non ti conoscessi, penserei tu sia un ragazzo stupido. If I didn't know you, I'd think you were a stupid guy.
    Se piove, il terreno è bagnato. If it rains, the ground is wet.
    Se tu mi avessi ascoltato, ora non saremmo qui. If you had listened to me, we wouldn't have ended up here.

     

    enlightened If-clauses (2): Main clause + Se + Clause

    Italian English
    Avremmo comprato i biglietti se tu fossi stato più veloce. We would've gotten the tickets if you had been faster.
    Usciremmo insieme se non avessi così tanto lavoro da fare. We would go out together if I didn't have so much work to do.
    Andrebbe tutto bene se tu non rovinassi sempre le cose. Everything would be alright if you didn't always mess things up.

     

    1. Type 1 conditional (Reality If-Clause)

    The hypothesis introduced in the If-clause is highly probable.

    In both the main and iI-clause, the verb is on the imperative or indicative mood.

    Italian English
    Se fuori piove, prendo un ombrello. If it rains outise, I take an umbrella.
    Ti pago una cena se mi aiuti. I'll offer you a dinner if you help me out.
    Se il computer non si accende, premi questo tasto. If the computer doesn't turn on, push this button.

    2. Type 2 conditional (Possibility If-Clause) 

    In this case, the hyphotesis expressed in the if-clause is possible but not certain.

    The main clause takes an imperfect subjunctive, whereas the if-clause has a verb in the imperative or conditional mood.

    Italian English
    Se ti chiedesse qualcosa, tu nega tutto. If he asks you something, deny everything.
    Se il treno oggi arrivasse in orario, sarei felice. If today the train arrived on time, I'd be happy.
    Se Maria fosse più gentile, nessuno la odierebbe. If Maria were kinder, nobody would hate her.

    3. Type 3 conditional (Impossibility If-Clause)

    In this last case, the hyphotesis has no chance of being fullfilled.

    If the hyphothesis refers to a present time, the main clause has a present or past conditional verb and the if-clause has an imperfect subjunctive verb.

    Italian English
    Se fossi in te, lascerei perdere. If I were you, I'd just let go.
    Se vincessi, non so cosa farei. If I won, I don't know what I would do.
    Se fossi  il direttore, cambierei molte cose. If I were the director, I'd change many things.

     

    If the hyphothesis refers to a past time, tha main clause has a past conditional verb and the if-clause past perfect subjunctive verb.

    Italian English
    Se fossi stato in te, avrei lasciato perdere. If I had been you, I would have just let it go.
    Se avessi vinto il premio, l'avrei dedicato a mia sorella. If I had won the prize, I woud have dedicated it to my sister.
    Se avvessero seguito i miei consigli, non avrebbero perso il lavoro. If they had followed my advice, they wouldn't have lost their job.

     

    Mixed verbs

    Some hypothesis could be built using mixed verb structures
    These sentences express the direct consequence on the present of a possible past action.

    The main clause takes a present conditional verb and the if-clause takes a past perfect subjunctive.

    Italian English
    Se avessimo ascoltato il loro consiglio, ora saremmo ricchi. If we had listened to their advice, we would be rich now.
    Se non avesse incontrato Anna, sarebbe ancora single. If he hadn't met Anna, he would still be single.
    Se non avesse trovato un lavoro, sarebbe disoccupato. If he hadn't found a job he would be unemployed.

     

    Exercises

    Exercise on Italian if-clauses - Drag text