• Italian grammar
    0%
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Comparative and superlative constructions are used to make comparisons between two or more terms.
     

    Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

    Comparative adjectives in Italian

    A comparative adjective (aggettivo comparativo) expresses a comparison between two elements.
    There are three different kinds of comparatives.

    • Comparative of majority
    • Comparative of minority
    • Comparative of equality

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    Comparative of majority

    The comparative of majority is formed according to the following structure:

     enlightenedpiù + adjective + di

    Italian  English
    Mio fratello è più bravo di me. My brother is better than me.
    Mia nonna è più vecchia di me.

    My grandma is older than me.

     

    Comparative of minority

    The comparative of minority is formed according to the following structure:

    enlightenedmeno + adjective + di

    Italian English
    Egli è meno ricco di Giovanni He is less rich than Giovanni
    Anna è meno divertente di te Anna is less fun than you

     

    Comparative of equality

    The comparative of equality is formed according to the following structure:

    enlightenedadjective + quanto / come

    Italian English
    Il mio amico è arrabbiato quanto te. My friend is as mad as you are.
    Anna é alta come Maria. Anna is as tall as Maria.

     
    Irregular forms of the comparative of majority

    Some adjectives create their comparative forms in two ways.
    Together with the analytic form (più + adjective+ di), these adjectives have the synthetic forms.
    Learn them by heart.

    Adjective Comparative (analytic form) Comparative (synthetic form)
    buono
    (
    good)
    più buono 
    (better)
    migliore 
    (better)
    cattivo
    (
    bad)
    più cattivo
    (
    worse)
    peggiore
    (worse)
    grande
    (
    big)
    più grande
    (
    bigger)
    maggiore
    (bigger)
    piccolo
    (
    small)
    più piccolo
    (
    smaller) 
    minore
    (smaller)
    alto
    (
    high) 
    più alto
    (
    higher)
    superiore
    (higher)
    basso
    (
    low)
    più basso
    (
    lower)
    inferiore
    (lower)


    The construction of the sentence remains the same as regular forms.

    Italian English
    Andrea è migliore di Luca. Andrea is better than Luca.
    La tua squadra è peggiore della mia. Your team is worse than mine.


    The analytic and the synthetic form coexist. You can learn the correct usage by practising the language only.

    La torta di mia nonna è più buona della mia.
    My grandma's cake is better than mine.

    La nostra idea è migliore della loro.
    Our idea is better than theirs.


    Superlative adjectives in Italian

    A superlative adjective expresses the fact that somebody has a certain quality to the maximum extent.
    The superlative can be either relative or absolute.

    Relative superlative

    The relative superlative states that someone or something has a certain quality to the maximum extent within a certain group of people or things.
    It can be formed according to one of the following structures:

    1. Determinate article + Più / Meno + adjective + Di (+ determinate article) / Tra / Fra + Noun
    2. Determinate article + Noun + Più / Meno + adjective + Di (+ determinate article)/ Tra / Fra + Noun

    Italian  English
    Giorgia è la più bella della classe. Giorgia is the most beautiful girl in the class.
    Stefano è il meno alto tra i giocatori della squadra. Stefano is the shorter (the less tall) among the players in the team.
    La spiaggia più bella della Corsica è Capo Pertusato. The most beautiful beach in Corsica is Capo Pertusato.
    Roma è la città più grande d'Italia. Rome is the largest city in Italy.

     
    Absolute superlative

    The absolute superlative form is used to state that someone (or something) has a certain quality to the highest degree, without any term of comparison.
    In general, it is formed by adding the suffix -ISSIMO to the adjective (after dropping its last vowel).

    Italian English
    Amo Torino, è una città bellissima. I love Turin, it's a beautiful city.
    Siamo troppi, c'è pochissimo spazio.

    We are too many, there's very few room.

    Other ways to form the absolute superlative

    The absolute superlative adjective can also be formed as follows:

    • Using an adverb (molto, davvero, realmente…) before an adjective

    una casa davvero grande
    a very big house

    • Repeating the same adjective twice (only in colloquial, informal language)

    un libro noioso noioso
    a very boring book

    • Adding a prefix (super-, arci-, iper-, extra-…) before the adjective

    un gioco superdivertente
    a very funny game

    Italian English
    Questo film è molto interessante. This film is very interesting.
    Michele sta bene? É pallido pallido. Is Michele ok? He is very pale.
    Amo il cioccolato extrafondente. I love extradark chocolate.


    Irregular superlative form

    As the comparatives, some superlative adjectives (both relative and absolute) create their superlative forms in two ways.
    Together with the analytic forms (il più + adjective+ di / suffix -ISSIMO), these adjectives also have the synthetic form.
    Learn them by heart.

    Adjective Relative superlative (analytic form) Relative superlative (synthetic form) Absolute superlative (analytic form) Absolute superlative (synthetic form)
    buono
    (good)
    il più buono
    (the best)
    il migliore
    (the best)
    buonissimo
    (very good)
    ottimo
    (very good)
    cattivo
    (bad)
    il più cattivo
    (the worst)
    il peggiore
    (the worst)
    cattivissimo
    (very bad)
    pessimo
    (very bad)
    grande
    (big)
    il più grande
    (the biggest)
    il maggiore
    (the biggest)
    grandissimo
    (very big)
    massimo
    (very big)
    piccolo
    (small)
    il più piccolo
    (the smallest)
    il minore
    (the smallest)
    piccolissimo
    (very small)
    minimo
    (very small)
    alto
    (high)
    il più alto
    (the highest)
    il superiore
    (the highest)
    altissimo
    (very high)
    supremo / sommo
    (very high)
    basso
    (low)
    il più basso
    (the lowest)
    l'inferiore
    (the lowest)
    bassissimo
    (very low)
    infimo
    (very low)


    The analytic and the synthetic form coexist. You can learn the correct usage by practising the language only.

    La torta di mia nonna è la più buona del mondo.
    My grandma's cake is the best in the world.

    La nostra idea è la migliore della classe.
    Our idea is the best in the class.

    Comparative and Superlative Adverbs

    Comparative adverbs in Italian

    A comparative adverb introduces a comparison between two elements.
    There are three different kinds of comparatives.

    • Comparative of majority
    • Comparative of minority
    • Comparative of equality

    Comparative of majority

    The comparative of majority is formed according to the following structure:

      enlightenedPiù (more) + Adverb + Di

    Italian English
    Mio fratello corre più lentamente di me.

    My brother runs faster than me.

    Lui ha fame e mangia più velocemente degli altri.

    He's hungry and he eats faster than the other students.


    Comparative of minority

    The comparative of minority is formed according to the following structure:

    enlightenedMeno (less) + Adverb + Di

    Italian English
    Lui parla meno forte di Marco.

    He speaks less loud than Marco.

    Anna dorme meno profondamente di Chiara.

    Anna sleeps less soundly than Chiara.

     

    Comparative of equality

    The comparative of equality is formed according to the following structure:

    enlightened(Tanto) + Adverb + quanto

    Italian  English
    Il mio amico parla lentamente quanto te.

    My friend speaks as slowly as you do.

    Michele scrive tanto rapidamente quanto Marco.

    Michele types as quickly as Marco.

     

     

    Superlative adverbs in Italian

    A superlative adverb expresses a certain quality to the maximum extent.
    The superlative can be either relative or absolute.

    Relative superlative

    The relative superlative states that someone or something has a certain quality to the maximum extent within a certain group of people or things.
    It can be formed according to the following structure:

    enlightened Determinate article + Più / Meno + adverb + Di (+ determinate article) / Tra / Fra

    Italian English
    Giorgio era quello che correva il più velocemente tra di noi.

    Giorgio was the one who ran the fastest between us.

    Martina leggeva il più attentamente possibile.

    Martina was reading as carefully as possible.

     

     Absolute superlative

    The absolute superlative form is used to state that someone (or something) has a certain quality to the highest degree, without any term of comparison.

    enlightenedSuperlative adjective (feminine singular form) + mente

    Adjective Superlative adverb  English
    Forte → Fortissima →
    Fortissimamente
    Lui parla fortissimamente.

    He speaks so loudly.

    Piano → Pianissima →
    Pianissimamente
    Cammina pianissimamente!

    Walk super slowly!

     

    Irregular forms

    Comparative and superlative adverbs also have some irregular forms; they must be learned by heart.

    Adverb Comparative Superlative
    Bene (Good) Meglio (Better) Ottimamente Benissimo (Amazingly)
    Male (Bad) Peggio (Worse) Malissimo (Terribly)
    Molto (A lot) Più (More) Moltissimo (The most)
    Poco (A little) Meno (Less) Pochissimo Minimamente (The littlest)