• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Singular to plural in Italian

    How to form the Italian plural

    The Italian plural is formed by changing the final vowel of each word according to these general rules:

    Singular Plural Italian English
    -a -e (feminine);
    -i (masculine)

    La mammaLe mamme
    L'artista → Gli artisti 

    Mother → Mothers

    Artist → Artists

    -e -i La lavatrice  → Le lavatrici  Washing machine → Washing machines
    -i -i

    La crisi → Le crisi

    Crise → Crises
    -o -i Il mondoI mondi World → Worlds
    -u -u Le gruLa gru Crane → Cranes
    -io -i; -ii Il foglioI fogli
    L'addioGli addii

    Sheet → Sheets

    Farewell → Farewells


    Vowel changes in the Italian plural

    We can highlight the following main categories of words according to their final vowel:

    • -a
    • -e
    • -i, u
    • -o


    Nouns ending in -a

    Masculine nouns ending in -a will form their plural with -i, feminine nouns change their ending from -a to -e.

      Italian English
    Masculine Il poeta → I poeti The poet → The poets
    Feminine La ragazza → Le ragazze The girl → The girls



    In case -a is preceded by c or g, an h is added just before the new vowel -e.

    Italian English
    La formica → Le formiche The ant → The ants
    La riga → Le righe The row → The rows
    La domenica → Le domeniche The Sunday → The Sundays


    Nouns ending in -e

    A noun ending in -e changes its vowel to -i, regardless of its gender.

    Italian English
    Il fiore → I fiori The flower → The flowers
    La pareteLe pareti The wall → The walls
    Il colore → I colori The colour → The colours

    Nouns ending in -i and -u

    This kind of nouns derives from foreign or ancient languages; the vowel ending remains unchanged when forming the plural.

    Italian English
    La crisi → Le crisi The crisis → The crises
    Lo gnu → Gli gnu The gnu → The gnus
    La metropoli → Le metropoli The metropolis → The metropolises

    enlightenedThese nouns are identical in their singular and plural forms, and, therefore, the article is the only thing that distinguishes them.

    Nouns ending in -o

    These nouns are almost always masculine, thus normally change to -i when forming the plural.

    Italian English
    Il regalo → I regali  The present →The presents
    Lo stereotipo → Gli stereotipi The stereotype → The stereotypes
    Il libro → I libri The book → The books


    When -o is preceded by c or g and the stress falls on the next-to-last syllable, an h has to be added between the consonant and the new vowel.

    Italian English
    Il sugo → I sughi The sauce → The sauces
    Il cuoco → I cuochi The cook → The cooks 
    Il lago → I laghi The lake → The lakes



    Note the following irregularities:

    Italian English
    L'amico → Gli amici The friend → The friends
    Il nemico → I nemici The enemy → The enemies
    Il greco → I greci The Greek → The Greeks


    Nouns ending in -io

    Nouns ending in -io simply drop the -o when forming their plural.

    Italian English
    Lo specchio → Gli specchi The mirror → The mirrors
    L'operaio → Gli operai The worker → The workers
    L'orologio → Gli orologi The clock → The clocks

    If the i preceding -o is stressed, then it is necessary to add another i:

    Italian English
    Lo zio → Gli zii The uncle → The uncles
    L'addio → Gli addii The farewell → The farewells
    Il pendìo → I pendii The slope → The slopes

    Irregular Italian plurals

    Gender changes 

    All the nouns in the table switched their gender according to number: they are masculine when singular, but their plural forms are feminine.

    Italian English
    Il braccio → Le braccia The arm → The arms
    Il ciglio → Le ciglia The eyelash → The eyelashes
    Il muro → Le mura The wall (the city walls) → The walls
    Il dito → Le dita The finger → The fingers


    Different endings

    Irregular plurals may also involve completely different endings from their original form, as shown in the following examples:

    Italian English
    Il bue → I buoi The ox → The oxen
    Il Dio → Gli Dèi The God → The Gods
    L'uomo → Gli uomini The man → The men
    L'ala → Le ali The wing → The wings
    La serie → Le serie The series → The series
    L'osso → Le ossa The bone → The bones


    Invariable Italian nouns

    Invariable nouns keep the same form in both singular and plural.

    Nouns ending with an accented vowel

    If the last letter is accented, singular and plural will be the same.

    Italian English
    La verità → Le verità
    La tribù → Le tribù 
    La città → Le città 
    The truth →  The truths 
    The tribe →  The tribes
    The city →  The cities

    Monosyllabic nouns

    Nouns with one sillabe don't change in their plural form.

    Italian English
    Il re → I re 
    Il tè → I tè 
    The king → The kings
    The tea → The teas

    Shortened nouns

    If a noun is shortnened, the plural form is the same as the singular.

    Italian English

    L'auto → Le auto 
    La moto → le moto

    The car → The cars
    The motorbike → The motorbikes

     Non-adapted borrowings

    Words from other languages don't change in the plural.

    Italian English
    Lo sport → Gli sport
    Il wurstel → I wurstel
    The sport → The sports
    The sausage → The sausages


    ​Italian defective nouns (only singular/only plural)

    Defective nouns don't have singular or plural.
    They are mostly abstract nouns used only in singular, or nouns of collective elements only used in plural.

    Italian English
    Il cemento The cement
    Il coraggio The courage
    La sete The thirst
    Gli occhiali The glasses
    I baffi The moustache
    Le forbici The scissors


    When an object consists of two pieces, it is common to refer to it as paio (a pair).

    • Un paio di forbici. (A pair of scissors)
    • Un paio di pantaloni. (A pair of trousers)


    Italian individual and collective nouns

    Most of the nouns in Italian are individual. This means they indicate only one element when grammatically singular.

    Nevertheless, there are nouns that are collective: they indicate more than one element or a group when grammatically singular.

    Italian English
    Il gregge  I greggi The flock
    La follaLe folle The crowd

    Although they exist both in singular and plural, some nouns can be both collective or individual depending on the context.

    • La banda rossa dei pantaloni. (The red band of the trousers.)
    • La banda dei musicisti. (The group of musicians.)


    Italian countable and uncountable nouns

    The distinction between countable and uncountable nouns in Italian is the same as in English.
    Since uncountables can't be counted, they don't have a plural, and to express the plural quantity we have to resort to other expressions:

    Uncountable (1) Uncountable (more than 1)
    Dammi il burro. (Give me the butter.) Dammi tre panetti di burro. (Give me three sticks of butter.)
    Voglio dell'acqua. (I want some water.) Voglio due bicchieri/bottiglie d'acqua. (I want two glasses/bottles of water.)


    Overabundant nouns (more than one singular or plural form) 

    Overabundant nouns have more than one form for the plural and/or for the singular.
    The meaning of the two terms is often related, but changes according to gender and number.

    Let's see some examples

    Singular Masculine Singular Feminine Plural Masculine Plural Feminine
    Il fronte (the front, the line) La fronte (the forehead) I fronti (the fronts, the lines) Le fronti (the foreheads)

    Singular Singular Plural
    Sorta (sort) Sorte (fate) Sorti (fates)


    Singular Plural Plural
    Il braccio (the arm, the branch) I bracci (branches) Le braccia (the arms)
    Il ciglio (the edge, the eyelash) I cigli (the edges) Le ciglia (the eyelashes)


    Exercise on plural nouns formation - Fill in the blanks

    Exercise on irregular Italian plurals (Invariable and defective nouns) - Single choice set

    Exercise on irregular Italian nouns (countable and uncountable nouns) - Drag and drop

    Exercise on irregular Italian plural (Gender changes and overabundant nouns) - Single choice set