• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The noun (nome, sostantivo) is the part of the speech indicating any abstract or concrete element.
    Nouns are always declinable in gender and number.
    The article has to agree in gender and number with the noun it refers to.
     

    Masculine and feminine in Italian nouns

    According to gender, we can identify four categories

    Gender and ending Italian English
    masculine in - o    l'albero

    the tree

    masculine in - e

    il bicchiere

    the glass

    feminine in - a la scarpa

    the shoe

    feminine in - e la stampante

    the printer

    enlightenedItalian nouns always have a gender (even animals and things)


    Animated vs. Inanimated beings

    This distinction is useful to recognize the gender of Italian nouns

      Grammatical gender Italian English
    Animated beings natural

    il nonno (maschile)
    la nonna (femminile)

    the grandfather (masculine)
    the grandmother (feminine)

    Inanimated beings conventional

    il giornale (maschile)
    la bottiglia (femminile)

    the newspaper (masculine)
    the bottle (feminine)

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    Masculine and feminine formation

    In general

    Masculine Feminine Italian English
    -o -a nonno → nonna

    grandfather → grandmother

    -e    -a parrucchiere → parrucchiera

    male hairdresser → female hairdresser

      
    A lot of nouns form their feminine form (or the masculine one) in an irregular way  

      Italian English
    Two different words fratello → sorella

    brother → sister

    Same form + different article l(o)' artista →l(a)'artista

    male artist → female artist

    Same form + same article (il) coniglio

    rabbit

    Same root + different suffix studente → studentessa

    male student → female student

    Two different meanings (il) caso → (la) casa

    fate → house

        

    Singular to plural in Italian nouns

    In general

    Singular Plural Italian English
    -a

    -e (feminine)
    -i (masculine)

    la ragazza → le ragazze
    l'(o) artista → gli artisti

    the girl → the girls
    the artist → the artists

    -e -i il parrucchiere → i parrucchieri

    the hairdresser → the hairdressers

    -i -i

    la crisi → le crisi

    the crisis → the crises
    -o -i il tavolo → i tavoli

    the table → the tables

    -u -u lo gnu → gli gnu

    the gnu → the gnus

    -io -i, -ii l'orologio → gli orologi

    the clock → the clocks


    Some nouns form their plural in an irregular way

      Italian English
    Gender changes Il braccio → Le braccia

    The arm → The arms

    Different endings Il bue → I buoi

    The ox → The oxen

    iInvariable nouns La verità → Le verità

    The truth → The truths

    Defective nouns Il cemento

    The cement

    Individual and collective nouns Il gregge → Le greggi

    The flock

    Countable and uncountable nouns Dammi il burro
    → Dammi tre panetti di burro.

    Give me the butter
    → Give me three sticks of butter

    Overabundant nouns

    Il fronte
    La fronte
    I fronti 
    Le fronti

    The front / The line
    The forehead
    The fronts / The lines
    The foreheads

     

    Italian modifying suffixes (diminutives, ...)

    In Italian we can use suffixes to add new meanings to the original word.

    We can distinguish between four different classes of altered nouns:

    • Diminutives (diminutives) → suffixes -ino, -etto, -ello, -icino, -olino, -icello, -icciolo, -otto
    • Terms of endearment (vezzeggiativi) → suffixes -uccio, -uzzo, -olo, -cino, -acchiotto.
    • Augmentatives (accrescitivi) → suffixe -one
    • Pejoratives (peggiorativi) → suffixes  -accio, -astro, -ucolo, -iciattolo.
      Italian English
    Diminutives ponticello

    little bridge

    Terms of endearment orsacchiotto

    teddy bear

    Augmentatives viaggione

    big travel

    Pejoratives mostriciattolo

    little ugly monster

     

     

    Next lessons

    1 Masculine and feminine in Italian Masculine and feminine in Italian
    2 Singular to plural in Italian A lesson on plural noun formation
    3 Italian modifying suffixes (diminutives, ...) A lesson on Italian modifying suffixes