• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The passato remoto is a simple tense that belongs to the indicative mood.

    Definition and usage of the absolute past in Italian (passato remoto)

    The passato remoto is used to refer to an action that took place and was concluded in the distant past. It has no links to the present, neither chronologically nor psychologically.

    Example:

    • L'Italia vinse in suo primo mondiale di calcio nel 1934 (Italy won its first Football World Cup in 1934)
    • La Prima Guerra Mondiale iniziò nel 1914 (The First World War began in 1914)

    enlightenedNowadays the passato remoto is not frequently used. Its use depends on the geographic area of the speaker.
    In the South of Italy, people may use the passato remoto to refer to events that took place in the recent past.
    In the North of Italy people may use the passato prossimo to refer to events that took place in the distant past.

    Marker words that indicate the passato remoto

    Here is a list of marker words that can be found with the passato remoto.

    Example:

    • Dieci anni fa visitai la Finlandia (Ten years ago I visited Finland)
    • Da piccolo mi ruppi una spalla (When I was a child I broke my shoulder)
    Example Translation
    Da piccolo/quando ero piccolo When I was little/a child
    1/5/10 anni fa 1/5/10 years ago
    L'anno scorso Last year
    Molto tempo fa A long time ago
    Nel 1300/1500/1900 In 1300/1500/1900

     

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    Conjugation of the passato remoto

    The passato remoto is formed as follows:

    Conjugation of regular verbs in the passato remoto

    The passato remoto is formed by adding a certain ending to the root of the verb.
    The endings depend on the conjugation the verb belongs to.

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    These verbs add the endings -ai, -asti, -ò, -ammo, -aste, -arono to the root of the verb.

    Example amare (to love)

      Root Ending Example Translation
    Io am ai Io amai quel libro I loved that book
    Tu am asti Tu amsti quel libro You loved that book
    Egli/Ella am ò Egli amò quel libro He lived that book
    Noi am ammo Noi amammo quel libro We loved that book
    Voi am aste Voi amaste quel libro You loved that book
    Essi/Esse am arono Essi amarono quel libro They loved that book

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    These verbs add the endings -ei/etti, -esti, -é/ette, -emmo, -este, -erono/ettero to the root of the verb.

    Example temere (to fear)

      Root Ending Example Translation
    Io tem ei/etti* Io temei/temetti di aver perso le chiavi I feared I had lost my keys
    Tu tem esti Tu temesti di aver perso le chiavi You feared you had lost your keys
    Egli/Ella tem é/ette* Egli temé/temette di aver perso le chiavi He feared he had lost his keys
    Noi tem emmo Noi tememmo di aver perso le chiavi We feared we had lost our keys
    Voi tem este Voi temeste di aver perso le chiavi You feared you had lost your keys
    Essi/Esse tem erono/ettero* Essi temerono/temettero di aver perso le chiavi They feared they had lost their keys

     

    enlightened*Some verbs such as temere (to fear), battere (to beat), ricevere (to receive) have both a regular conjugation and an alternative one. So both the following sentences are correct:
    e.g. Io ricevei una mail (I received an e-mail)
    Io ricevetti una mail (I received an e-mail)

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    These verbs add the endings -ii, -isti, -ì, -immo, -iste, -irono to the root of the verb.

    Example servire (to serve)

      Root Ending Example Translation
    Io serv ii Io servii i pasti al ristorante I served meals in the restaurant
    Tu serv isti Tu servisti i pasti al ristorante You served meals in the restaurant
    Egli/Ella serv ì Egli servì i pasti al ristorante He served meals in the restaurant
    Noi serv immo Noi servimmo i pasti al ristorante We served meals in the restaurant
    Voi serv iste Voi serviste i pasti al ristorante You served meals in the restaurant
    Essi/Esse serv irono Essi servirono i pasti al ristorante They served meals in the restaurant

     

    Conjugation of irregular verbs in the passato remoto

    Irregular verbs in the passato remoto are numerous and they mainly belong to the -ere conjugation.
    These verbs have to be studied by heart, but there are a few tips and rules that can help you to learn these verbs:

    1. In order to conjugate some of these verbs it is important to know the participio passato (past participle).
    2. The conjugation of the verbs usually changes for the first and third person singular (io and egli/ella) and for the third person plural (essi/esse).
    3. The conjugation for the second person singular (tu), the first and second person plural (noi and voi) is the same as the one of regular verbs.
    4. As already stated in the previous attention box, remember that some verbs add an alternative conjugation to the regular one.
    5. Verbs whose infinitive ends with -gliere (togliere - to remove/to take off), -ndere (scendere - to get off/to descend) and -gere or -ggere (spargere - to spread, leggere - to read) usually form the passato remoto adding the ending -si at the first person singular (io). See the conjugation of scendere as an example.
    6. Some verbs such as bere (to drink) and tenere (to keep) double the last consonant of the verb root. See the conjugation of bere as an example. 

    Example scendere (to get off/to descend)

    The participio passato of scendere is SCESO.

      Passato remoto Example Translation
    Io scesi Io scesi dal pullman una volta arrivato in piazza When I got to the square, I got off the bus
    Tu scendesti Tu scendesti dal pullman una volta arrivato in piazza When you got to the square, you got off the bus
    Egli/Ella scese Egli scese dal pullman una volta arrivato in piazza When he got to the square, he got off the bus
    Noi scendemmo Noi scendemmo dal pullman una volta arrivati in piazza When we got to the square, we got off the bus
    Voi scendeste Voi scendeste dal pullman una volta arrivati in piazza When you got to the square, we got off the bus
    Essi/Esse scesero Essi scesero dal pullman una volta arrivati in piazza When they got to the square, they got off the bus

     

    Here you can find a list of the main irregular verbs:

      Bere (to drink) Chiedere (to ask) Chiudere (to close) Correre (to run) Cuocere (to cook) Crescere (to grow) Dipingere (to paint) Nascere (to bear/ to be born) Rompere (to break) Venire (to come)
    Io bevvi/bevetti chiesi chiusi corsi cossi crebbi dipinsi nacqui ruppi venni
    Tu bevesti chiedesti chiudesti corresti c(u)ocesti crescesti dipingesti nascesti rompesti venisti
    Egli/Ella bevve/bevette chiese chiuse corse cosse crebbe dipinse nacque ruppe venne
    Noi bevemmo chiedemmo chiudemmo corremmo c(u)ocemmo crescemmo dipingemmo nascemmo rompemmo venimmo
    Voi beveste chiedeste chiudeste correste c(u)oceste cresceste dipingeste nasceste rompeste veniste
    Essi/Esse bevvero/bevettero chiesero chiusero corsero cossero crebbero dipinsero nacquero ruppero vennero

     

    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    Auxiliary verbs are irregular verbs so their conjugation has to be studied by heart.

      Essere (to be) Avere (to have)
    Io fui ebbi
    Tu fosti avesti
    Egli/Ella fu ebbe
    Noi fummo avemmo
    Voi foste aveste
    Essi/Esse furono ebbero

     

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