• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Italian verbs

    Verbs (verbi) are the core of each possible sentence in speech, as they express whatever action is being carried out and whatever is being talked about in the phrase.

    The Italian language is very rich in term of varieties of verbs, embedded with a large number of many different moods and tenses.

    Mastering them mught be quite a challenging experience - nevertheless, it is definitely worth the effort.

    How do verbs in Italian work?

    For any English speaker willing to get familiar with the verbs in the Italian language, it is paramount to learn two very important aspects:

    1. in contrast with English, there is a different verb declension for each person, therefore making it possible for up to six different verbal forms occurring in a single tense;
    2. consequently, it is not obligatory to write the personal pronoun before each verb.

    If you are confused, please have a look at the following table for a more practical explanation:

      EN IT
    1st sing. I run corro
    2nd sing. you run corri
    3rd sing. he runs corre
    1st plur. we run corriamo
    2nd plur. you run correte
    3rd plur. they run corrono


    As you may notice, whereas all declensed form of "run" are equal to the infinitive form of the verb (except for the 3rd person singular), in Italian it is different for each person.

    Therefore, even if it is not wrong to say io corro, tu corri, lui corre (and so on), it is possible to omit the pronoun since the verb itself implies who is performing the action!

    Characteristics of the Italian verbs

    It is fundamental to be able to recognize the two main elements of an Italian verb - that is, the radice (lit. "root") and desinenza ("ending"). 

    In the above mentioned verb corriamo ("we run"), the radice is corr- and the desinenza is -iamo. Now, for a bit of explanation:

    • as radice we consider the portion of verb which stems directly from the infinite form and stays unchanged in every tense. It is thus the fixed part of the verb;
    • as desinenza we consider the ending of the verb, which changes according to both the tense and the person. Therefore it is the variable part of the verb.

                                                                    italian verb conjugation

    So essentially, learning how to conjugate verbs in Italian is a matter of learning how desinenze work with each different kind of tenses.

    Italian moods and tenses

    All the Italian verb conjugations may be subdivided in several different categories.

    The main category is called modo ("mood"), expressing the way the action described by the verb is carried out.

    Each modo has one or more tempo ("tense") which expresses the timeframe of the verb (be it present, past or future).

    enlightened There are over twenty different tenses in the Italian language, shared among several different moods. In the next few lessons, you shall have a look to each one of them singularly.


    Italian verb conjugation

    One last paragraph to introduce the verb conjugation in Italian.

    enlightened There are three different ways to conjugate verbs in Italian, with each verb belonging to one class according to the desinenza of their present infinitive form.

    Therefore:

    1. conjugation, verbs ending in -are: cantare, parlare, trovare;
    2. conjugation, verbs ending in -ere: chiedere, ridere, scrivere;
    3. conjugation, verbs ending in -ire: dormire, ​pulire, servire.

    Each one of these classes of verbs conjugates in its own way.

    Have a look at some examples of conjugations (present tense) for each one of those classes:

      parlare (I) ridere (II) dormire (III)
    io parlo rido dormo
    tu parli ridi dormi
    lui parla ride dorme
    noi parliamo ridiamo dormiamo
    voi parlate ridete dormite
    loro parlano ridono dormono

     

    enlightened All the desinenze marked in bold show the differences induced by each class of conjugation.

    As you progress through more complex tenses, you will find out that these differences grow much bigger along the way.


     
    Before you start learning the Italian verbs thoroughly, we suggest you try out the first (audio) exercise on the Italian verb conjugations!

    Next lessons

    1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs Course on the different functions and the classification of Italian verbs
    2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian A lesson on the transitive and intransitive verbs of the Italian language
    3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian A lesson on the Italian verbs' active and passive voices.
    4 Italian regular verbs An introduction to the regular verbs in Italian
    5 Italian irregular verbs A lesson about the irregular verbs in Italian
    6 Italian modal verbs An introduction to the Italian modal verbs
    7 Italian reflexive verbs A lesson on the Italian reflexive verbs
    8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian A lesson on the verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian
    9 Verbi difettivi in Italian A lesson on the verbi difettivi of the Italian language
    10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian A lesson on the verbi fraseologici in Italian
    11 Verbi impersonali in Italian A lesson on the verbi impersonali in Italian
    12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian This is a course about the auxiliary verbs in Italian (essere, avere).
    13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian A lesson about the prepositions that follows Italian verbs.