• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The adjective provides information about nouns.

    una giacca rossa
    a red jacket
    i bambini inglesi
    English children


    Agreement of adjectives

    In Italian, every adjective changes its form to agree with the gender and the number of the noun it refers to.

      Singular Plural English
    Masculine

    bello

    belli

    handsome

    Feminine

    bella

    belle

    beautiful

     

    There are some exceptions:

    • Adjectives ending in -e

    • Adjectives ending in -a

    • Adjectives ending in -tore

    • Adjectives with roots ending in -c or -g

    • Invariable adjectives
       

    Italian adjective list

    The Italian language distinguishes the following adjectives:

    • Qualifying adjectives
    • Possessive adjectives
    • Demonstrative adjectives
    • Indefinite adjectives
    • Numeral adjectives
    • Interrogative adjectives
       

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    Qualifying adjectives

    In Italian, qualifying adjectives can precede of follow the noun

    Position Function Italian English
    before the noun attributive Ho trascorso una fantastica giornata con te I spent a wonderful day with you
    after the noun predicative Quello è un posto sicuro That is a safe place


    Some qualifying adjectives have different meanings depending on their position

    Italian English Italian English
    un buon amico a real friend un amico buono

    a kind friend

    diverse persone several people persone diverse

    different people


    Comparative and superlative adjectives

    Qualifying adjectives have comparative and superlative forms. They are used to make comparisons between two terms.

     

    Italian

    English
    Qualifying

    simpatico

    nice

    Comparative of majority più simpatico

    nicer

    Comparative of minority

    meno simpatico

    less nice
    Comparative of equality

    simpatico come

    nice as
    Relative superlative

    il più simpatico

    the nicest
    Absolute superlative simpaticissimo

    very nice


    Let's analize the following example

      Qualifying adjective Comparative of majority Comparative of minority Comparative of equality Relative superlative Absolute superlative
    Italian Federico è intelligente Federico è più intelligente di Luca Federico è meno intelligente di Giovanni Federico è intelligente come Matteo Federico è il più intelligente della classe

    Federico è intelligentissimo

    English Federico is clever Federico is more clever than Luca Federico is less clever than Giovanni Federico is as clever as Matteo Federico is the most clever in the class

    Federico is very clever


    Possessive adjectives

    Possessive adjectives indicate possession of one or more elements by any subject or object in speech.

    Italian English
    mio

    my

    tuo

    your

    suo

    his/her

    nostro

    our

    vostro

    your

    loro

    their


    Take a look at the following examples

    La mia giacca è sul tavolo
    My jacket is on the table

    La vostra camera è disordinata
    Your room is untidy.


    Demonstrative adjectives

    Demonstrative adjectives are used to refer to an element whose entity and properties are precisely known.

    Italian English
    questo

    this

    questi

    these

    quello

    that

    quelli

    those


    Let's see some examples

    Questo biglietto del treno è caro
    This train ticket is expensive

    Quelle scarpe sono molto belle
    That shoes are really nice


    Indefinite adjectives

    Indefinite adjectives refer to someone or something without specifying any quantity or any quality accurately.

    Italian English
    nessuno

    nobody, none

    alcuno

    nobody, none

    ciascuno

    each

    ogni

    every

    qualunque

    any

    qualsiasi

    any

    certo

    certain, some

    molto

    much, many, very, a lot

    troppo

    too much, too many

    tanto

    much, many, very, a lot

    diversi

    some, many

    parecchio

    much, many, a lot

    poco

    few, little

    tutto

    all, every

    altro

    other, more

    qualche

    some, few

    alcuni

    some, few


    Take a look at the following examples

    Qualche speranza c'è ancora
    There is still some hope

    Ogni studente deve studiare
    Every student has to study
     

    Numeral adjectives

    Numbers can be used as adjectives to modify a noun.

      Italian English
    Cardinal uno, due, tre...

    one, two, three

    Ordinal il primo, il secondo, il terzo...

    the first, the second, the third


    Let's see some examples

    Ci sono due caramelle nella scatola
    There two sweets in the box

    Oggi è il quarto giorno della settimana
    Today is the fourth day of the week


    Interrogative adjectives

    Interrogative adjectives introduce a question or a doubt.

    Italian English
    che...?

    what ...?

    quale...?

    what...?

    quanto...?

    how much/ how many/ how long?


    Take a look at the following examples.

    Quale bottiglia devo prendere?
    What bottle do I have to take?

    Quanto tempo è passato?
    How long has it been?

    Next lessons

    1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) Unlike English, Italian adjectives have always to agree with the noun
    2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian Qualifying adjectives in Italian can precede or follow the noun
    3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) Possessive adjectives in Italian don't have the distinction between the third person possessor
    4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) Demonstrative adjectives in Italian can indicate closeness or remoteness
    5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) Indefinite adjectives in Italian can have several meanings and uses
    6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) Numeral adjectives, as number, can be cardinal or ordinal
    7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) Interrogative adjectives in Italian are only three
    8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z) Qualifying adjectives are used to describe someone/somebody. Here are the most important examples.