The reflexive verbs (verbi riflessivi) are used to express actions that "reflect" their effect on the speaker. That is, the subject and the object of the verbs are the same.
Usually, the object is expressed by the pronominal particle.
|Io||Mi (myself)||Io mi lavo. (I wash myself)|
|Tu||Ti (yourself)||Tu ti lavi. (You wash yourself)|
Egli / ella
Essi / esse
Egli si lava. (He/she washes himself/herself)
Essi si lavano. (They wash themselves)
|Noi||Ci (ourselves)||Noi ci laviamo. (We wash ourselves)|
|Voi||Vi (yourselves)||Voi vi lavate. (You wash yourselves)|
Careful! As you can see, the third person both singular and plural use the same pronoun (si).
Reflexive verbs are very common in Italian, yet they represent a small category among all the verbs.
They can be easily distinguished by the clitic pronoun si added to their infinitive forms, without the final -e.
Below you can find a chart that shows this process.
|amare||amarsi||to love > to love oneself|
|lavare||lavarsi||to wash > to wash oneself|
|vestire||vestirsi||to wear > to get dressed|
The following is a short list of some of the most common reflexive verbs in Italian.
|Infinitive reflexive form||Translation|
|abbronzarsi||to get tanned, to sunbath|
|addormentarsi||to fall asleep|
|alzarsi||to get up, to stand up|
|annoiarsi||to get bored|
|arrabbiarsi||to get angry/mad|
|chiedersi||to wonder, to ask oneself|
|divertirsi||to enjoy oneself|
|farsi il bagno||to have a bath|
|farsi la doccia||to have a shower|
|farsi male||to hurt oneself|
|fidanzarsi||to get engaged|
|mettersi||to put oneself into smth., to wear smth.|
|nascondersi||to hide oneself|
|perdersi||to lose oneself, to get lost|
|preoccuparsi||to get worried about smth.|
|prepararsi||to prepare oneself to/for smth.|
|ricordarsi||to remember, to remind oneself|
|sdraiarsi||to lie down|
|sedersi||to get seated|
|sposarsi||to get married|
|svegliarsi||to wake up|
|tagliarsi||to cut oneself|
|trovarsi||to be located, to find oneself somewhere|
|truccarsi||to put on make-up|
Conjugation of reflexive verbs proceeds just as any other that of any Italian verb would.
The big difference is - in each conjugation, the appropriate direct subject pronoun is added before any verbal voice.
Here follows the conjugation in all tenses of a simple reflexive verb, lavarsi (to wash oneself).
|Present||Present Perfect||Imperfect||Absolute Past||Preterite Perfect||Future Simple||Future Perfect|
|Io||mi lavo||mi sono lavato||mi lavavo||mi lavai||mi fui lavato||mi laverò||mi sarò lavato|
|Tu||ti lavi||ti sei lavato||ti lavavi||ti lavasti||ti fosti lavato||ti laverai||ti sarai lavato|
|Egli / ella||si lava||si è lavato||si lavava||si lavò||si fu lavato||si laverà||si sarà lavato|
|Noi||ci laviamo||ci siamo lavati||ci lavavamo||ci lavammo||ci fummo lavati||ci laveremo||ci saremo lavati|
|Voi||vi lavate||vi siete lavati||vi lavavate||vi lavaste||vi foste lavati||vi laverete||vi sarete lavati|
|Essi / esse||si lavano||si sono lavati||si lavavano||si lavarono||si fossero lavati||si laveranno||si saranno lavati|
|(Che) io||mi lavi||mi lavassi||mi sia lavato||mi fossi lavato|
|(Che) tu||ti lavi||ti lavassi||ti sia lavato||ti fossi lavato|
|(Che) egli / ella||si lavi||si lavasse||si sia lavato||si fosse lavato|
|(Che) noi||ci laviamo||ci lavassimo||ci siamo lavati||ci fossimo lavati|
|(Che) voi||vi laviate||vi lavaste||vi siate lavati||vi foste lavati|
|(Che) essi / esse||si lavino||si lavassero||si siano lavati||si fossero lavati|
|Io||mi laverei||mi sarei lavato|
|Tu||ti laveresti||ti saresti lavato|
|Egli / ella||si laverebbe||si sarebbe lavato|
|Noi||ci laveremmo||ci saremmo lavati|
|Voi||vi lavereste||vi sareste lavati|
|Essi / esse||si laverebbero||si sarebbero lavati|
|Egli / ella||Si lavi|
|Essi / esse||Si lavino|
|Lavantesi / lavantisi||Lavatosi / lavatasi / lavatisi / lavatesi|
|Lavandosi / lavandomi / lavandoti / lavandoci / lavandovi||Essendosi / essendomi / essendoti / essendosi / essendovi lavato/a - essendosi lavati/e|
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