• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The preterite perfect (trapassato remoto) is a compound tense that belongs to the indicative mood.

    Definition and usage of the preterite perfect tense (trapassato remoto) in Italian

    The trapassato remoto is usually used in literary contexts. In everyday language* it is rarely used, except in very formal contexts.

    *enlightenedIn everyday language the trapassato remoto is usually replaced with the passato remoto or the trapassato prossimo.


    The trapassato remoto refers to an action that took place in the past before another action introduced by the passato remoto.
    Therefore, the trapassato remoto can be usually found in subordinate clauses.

    Marker words that indicate the trapassato remoto

    The trapassato remoto can be introduced by the following marker words:

    Example Translation
    Dopo che After
    Quando When
    Non appena As soon as
    Finché Until


    Examples:

    • Non appena ebbe finito di piovere, il lupo andò a dormire (As soon as it had stopped raining, the wolf went to sleep).
    • Quando ebbe finito di lavorare, gli chiesi informazioni sull'evento che stava organizzando (When he had finished to work, I asked him some information on the event he was planning).

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    Conjugation of the trapassato remoto

    Th trapassato remoto is formed as follows:

    Passato remoto of the auxiliary verb essere/avere + participio passato (past participle) of the main verb

    Conjugation of regular verbs in the trapassato remoto

    Here you can find three examples of regular verbs in the trapassato remoto tense.

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Example mangiare (to eat)

      Passato remoto auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io ebbi mangiato Io ebbi mangiato una mela I had eaten an apple
    Tu avesti mangiato Tu avesti mangiato una mela You had eaten an apple
    Egli/Ella ebbe mangiato Egli ebbe mangiato una mela He had eaten an apple
    Noi avemmo mangiato Noi avemmo mangiato una mela We had eaten an apple
    Voi aveste mangiato Voi aveste mangiato una mela You had eaten an apple
    Essi/Esse ebbero mangiato Essi ebbero mangiato una mela They had eaten an apple

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Example credere (to believe)

      Passato remoto auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io ebbi creduto Io ebbi creduto alle sue bugie I had believed to his lies
    Tu avesti creduto Tu avesti creduto alle sue bugie You had believed to his lies
    Egli/Ella ebbe creduto Egli ebbe creduto alle sue bugie He had believed to his lies
    Noi avemmo creduto Noi avemmo creduto alle sue bugie We had believed to his lies
    Voi aveste creduto Voi aveste creduto alle sue bugie You had believed to his lies
    Essi/Esse ebbero creduto Essi ebbero creduto alle sue bugie They had believed to his lies

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Example dormire (to sleep)

      Passato remoto auxiliary verb Participio passato main verb Example Translation
    Io ebbi dormito Io ebbi dormito tutto il giorno I had slept all day
    Tu avesti dormito Tu avesti dormito tutto il giorno You had slept all day
    Egli/Ella ebbe dormito Egli ebbe dormito tutto il giorno He had slept all day
    Noi avemmo dormito Noi avemmo dormito tutto il giorno We had slept all day
    Voi aveste dormito Voi aveste dormito tutto il giorno You had slept all day
    Essi/Esse ebbero dormito Essi ebbero dormito tutto il giorno They had slept all day

     

    Conjugation of irregular verbs in the trapassato remoto

    Verbs that form the participio passato irregularly, have to be studied by heart.
    Here are some examples:

      Vedere (to see) Morire (to die) Vivere (to live) Scrivere (to write) Leggere (to read)
    Io ebbi visto fui morto/a* ebbi vissuto ebbi scritto ebbi letto
    Tu avesti visto fosti morto/a* avesti vissuto avesti scritto avesti letto
    Egli/Ella ebbe visto fu morto/a* ebbe vissuto ebbe scritto ebbe letto
    Noi avemmo visto fummo morti/e* avemmo vissuto avemmo scritto avemmo letto
    Voi aveste visto foste morti/e* aveste vissuto aveste scritto aveste letto
    Essi/Esse ebbero visto furono morti/e* ebbero vissuto ebbero scritto ebbero letto

     

    *enlightenedRemember that when you use the auxiliary verb essere, the participio passato must agree with the subject in gender and number!

     

    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    The auxiliary verbs form the trapassato prossimo as follows:

      Essere (to be) Avere (to have)
    Io fui stato/a ebbi avuto
    Tu fosti stato/a avesti avuto
    Egli/Ella fu stato/a ebbe avuto
    Noi fummo stati/e avemmo avuto
    Voi foste stati/e aveste avuto
    Essi/Esse furono stati/e ebbero avuto

     

    Examples:

    • Non appena ebbi avuto notizie da Luca, parlai con Caterina (As soon as I got news from Luca, I talked to Caterina)
    • Quando ebbi avuto modo di andare in libreria, comprai un libro (When I had tha chance to go to the bookshop, I bought a book)

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