Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences)
To negate a sentence it's necessary to add Non (Not) before the main verb.
Negative sentence: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Non + Verb + Rest of the sentence
|Lui non sa cucinare.||He can't cook.|
|Non dormire!||Don't sleep!|
|L'esame non è stato superato.||The exam was not passed.|
Position of other elements in the sentence
Direct and indirect pronouns
Here's the correct structure to add these kinds of pronouns to your negative sentences.
Direct and indirect pronouns: Non + Pronoun + Verb + Rest of the sentence
If the pronoun is merged with the verb, Non simply precede this contruction.
|Non mi piace il cavolo.||I don't like cabbage.|
|Non glielo do.||I won't give it to her.|
|Non parlarle.||Don't talk to her.|
Not even, nothing
Negation adverbs could also be used to negate sentences. If this is the case, it's necessary to remember a couple of rules.
If Nessuno (Nobody), Neanche, Nemmeno, Neppure (Not even), Niente (Nothing) Nulla (Nothing) are placed before the verb, Non (Not) mustn't be added.
|Nessuno andrà al cinema.||Nobody will go to the cinema.|
|Neache Mario sa la risposta.||Not even Mario knows the answer.|
|Niente è deciso.||Nothing is decided.|
Adverbs of frequency and time
In compound verbs, words like Già (Already/Yet) Ancora (Yet/Still/Again) Mai (Ever/Never) and Più (Any more/Any longer) are placed between the auxiliary and the past participle.
|Il Presidente non ha ancora risposto.||The President hasn't answered yet.|
|Non avevo mai visto una giraffa dal vivo.||I have never seen a giraffe in the flesh.|
Negative interrogative questions
These sentences are interrogative questions that are turned into negatives.
Negative interrogative questions: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Non + Verb + Rest of the sentence
|Maria non ha portato i soldi?||Didn't Maria bring the money?|
|Non sei uscito ieri sera?||Didn't you go out last night?|
The most common Wh-Question used in Italian for negative interrogatives is Perchè (Why).
Wh-Questions: Perché + Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Non + (Personal pronoun) + Rest of the sentence
|Perché non sei a scuola?||Why aren't you at school?|
|Perché il gatto non è in garage?||Why isn't the cat in the garage?|
|Perché non finisci di mangiare?||Why don't you finish eating?|
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