• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • The present tense in Italian belongs to the indicative mood and it is called presente indicativo.

    Definition and usage of the present tense in Italian (presente indicativo)

    The presente indicativo refers to an action that takes place in the present.

    • Marco guarda la TV (Marco watches the TV)
    • Io leggo un libro (I read a book)

    enlightenedIn English you have to use personal pronouns to express the subject. In Italian, the subject of a sentence is often indicated by the ending of the verb so there is no need to use personal pronouns.
    e.g.  (Io) vado a Bologna (I go to Bologna)
            (Gianni) suona il pianoforte (Gianni plays the piano)

    enlightenedIn Italian the presente indicativo is also used to indicate the present progressive tense (present continuous).
    e.g. Giulia canta una canzone (Giulia is singing a song)
            Riccardo manda un messaggio ad un amico (Riccardo is texting a friend)

    When to use the presente indicativo

    There are other situations in which it is possible to use the presente indicativo: 

    1. To express an action that takes place regularly or a habit (presente abituale)
    2. To state truths and scientific facts that are always true (presente atemporale)
    3. To refer to actions that will take place in the future (presente pro futuro)
    4. To indicate an action that took place in the past, especially when narrating something (presente storico)
      Example Translation
    Presente abituale
    • La mattina mi sveglio presto
    • Vado in Spagna tutti gli anni
    • I wake up early in the morning
    • I go to Spain every year
    Presente atemporale
    • L'acqua bolle a 100°
    • Il cane è un animale
    • Water boils at 100°
    • The dog is an animal
    Presente pro futuro
    • Domani vado a Parigi
    • Tra tre giorni vado al mare
    • Tomorrow I (will) go to Paris
    • In three days I (will) go to the seaside
    Presente storico
    • Giotto nasce nel 1267
    • Eravamo in biblioteca e all'improvviso suona il telefono
    • Giotto was* born in 1267
    • We were at the library and suddenly the phone starts ringing

     

    *enlightenedIn Italian the verb "to be born" can be used in the present tense because of the historical present, but in English it is impossible to express the same concept using the present tense. In this case it is necessary to say Giotto was born in 1267.

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    Marker words that indicate the presente indicativo

    There are some words that can help you to indicate that you have to use the presente indicativo.

    Example: 

    • Vado sempre al cinema di sabato (On Saturdays I always go to the cinema)
    • Vanno in palestra due volte alla settimana (They go to the gym twice a week)

    The most common marker words are:

    Example Translation
    Sempre Always
    Spesso Often
    Ogni giorno/mese/anno Every day/month/year
    Due volte alla settimana Twice a week
    Tra tre ore/giorni In three hours/days
    Adesso/Ora Now
    In questo momento In this moment/Right now
    Di solito Usually
    Qualche volta Sometimes

    How to conjugate the presente indicativo in Italian

    The presente indicativo is formed as follows:

    Conjugation of regular verbs in presente indicativo

    Regular verbs form the presente indicativo by adding the following endings to the root of the verb.

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Verbs of the first conjugation add the following endings: -o, -i, -a, -iamo, -ate, -ano.

    Example amare (to love):

      Root Ending Example Translation
    Io am o Io amo il calcio I love football
    Tu am i Tu ami il calcio You love football
    Egli/Ella am a Egli ama il calcio He loves football
    Noi am iamo Noi amiamo il calcio We love football
    Voi am ate Voi amate il calcio You love football
    Essi/Esse am ano Essi amano il calcio They love fotball

    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Verbs of the second conjugation add the following endings: -o, -i, -e, -iamo, -ete, -ono.

    Example correre (to run):

      Root Ending Example Translation
    Io corr o Io corro intorno al parco I run around the park
    Tu corr i Tu corri intono al parco You run around the park
    Egli/Ella corr e Egli corre intorno al parco He runs around the park
    Noi corr iamo Noi corriamo intorno al parco We run around the park
    Voi corr ete Voi correte intorno al parco You run around the park
    Essi/Esse corr ono Essi corrono intorno al parco They run around the park

    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Verbs of the third conjugation add the following endings: -o, -i, -e, -iamo, -ite, -ono.

    Example partire (to leave):

      Root Ending Example Translation
    Io part o Io parto per la Grecia I leave to (go to) Greece
    Tu part i Tu parti per la Grecia You leave to (go to) Greece
    Egli/Ella part e Egli parte per la Grecia He leaves to (go to) Greece
    Noi part iamo Noi partiamo per la Grecia We leave to (go to) Greece
    Voi part ite Voi partite per la Grecia You leave to (go to) Greece
    Essi/Esse part ono Essi partono per la Grecia They leave to (go to) Greece

    Conjugation of irregular verbs in presente indicativo

    The majority of Italian verbs are irregular.
    There are no grammatical rules to follow in order to conjugate such verbs.
    Irregular verbs have to be studied by heart.

    Here you can find a list of the main irregular verbs based on the conjugation they belong to.

    The main irregular verbs in the presente indicativo are:

    1. -are: andare, fare, dare
    2. -ere: bere, dovere, potere, sapere, vedere, volere
    3. -ire: finire, venire, uscire, dire

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Here is the conjugation for the irregular verbs andare, fare and dare:

      Andare (To go) Fare (To do/make) Dare (To give)
    Io vado faccio do
    Tu vai fai dai
    Egli/Ella va fa
    Noi andiamo facciamo diamo
    Voi andate fate date
    Essi/Esse vanno fanno danno

    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Here is the conjugation for the irregular verbs bere, dovere, potere, sapere, vedere, volere:

      Bere (To drink) Dovere (Must/have to) Potere (Can) Sapere (To know) Vedere (To see) Volere (To want)
    Io bevo devo posso so vedo voglio
    Tu bevi devi puoi sai vedi vuoi
    Egli/Ella beve deve può sa vede vuole
    Noi beviamo dobbiamo possiamo sappiamo vediamo vogliamo
    Voi bevete dovete potete sapete vedete volete
    Essi/Esse bevono devono possono sanno vedono

    vogliono

     

    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Here is the conjugation for the irregular verbs finire, venire, uscire, dire:

      Finire (To finish) Venire (To come) Uscire (To exit) Dire (To say)
    Io finisco vengo esco dico
    Tu finisci vieni esci dici
    Egli/Ella finisce viene esce dice
    Noi finiamo veniamo usciamo diciamo
    Voi finite venite uscite dite
    Essi/Esse finiscono vengono escono dicono

     

    enlightenedPlease, keep in mind that the auxiliary verbs (essere and avere) are irregular verbs!

    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    Auxiliary verbs are irregular verbs so their conjugation has to be studied by heart.

    Here is the conjugation for essere and avere

      Essere (to be) Avere (to have)
    Io sono ho
    Tu sei hai
    Egli/Ella è ha
    Noi siamo abbiamo
    Voi siete avete
    Essi/Esse sono hanno

    Example:

    • Noi siamo italiani (We are Italian)
    • Pietro e Luisa hanno tre gatti (Pietro and Luisa have three cats)

    Now it is time you try to do our exercises on the presente indicativo!