• Italian grammar
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  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • If you want to form a simple affirmative sentence, it's necessary to order three main elements first.

    enlightened Simple affirmative sentence: Subject + Verb + Object

    Italian English
    Marco guarda la televisione. Marco is watching television.
    Il cantante saluta i fans. The singer waves to the fans.
    L'albero è in giardino. The tree is in the garden.
     

    Sentence structure rules

    Word order recap

    We can imagine other elements of the sentence as blocks. Each block has its own position.

    Here's a recap of the possible spots in which you can collocate the linguistic elements you need.

    (Adverb) Subject
    (personal pronoun omittable)
    Preposition +
    Information
    Direct/Indirect/Reflexive pronoun Verb (Adverb) [Adjective] Direct object [Adjective] Indirect object (Adverb)
    Complement
    English
    (Oggi) Maria / mi porta / / un maglione rosso / (Oggi) Today Maria will bring me a red sweater.
    / (Tu) / / sei sempre un grande amico / per Laura. / You are always a great friend for Laura.
    / La mia amica Sara / / è andata / / / / al mare / My friend Sara went to the sea.
    Domani (io) / ti chiamerò brevemente / / / / alle cinque. Tomorrow I will briefly call you at five.
    / Il regalo del compleanno / era / blu e giallo / / / / The birthday present was blue and yellow.

     

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    Position of articles

    Articles are used to point out a noun or other substantivized parts of speech.

    enlightened Remember! Italian nouns are always introduced by an article (either determinate, indeterminate or partitive).

    • CORRECT: Girls just want to have fun. Le ragazze vogliono semplicemente divertirsi.
    • WRONG: Girls just want to have fun. (x) Ragazze vogliono semplicemente divertirsi.

     

    Omission of the personal pronoun

    Unlike English, in most cases personal pronouns could be omitted because the conjungated verb clearly shows the subject of the sentence.

    Italian English
    (Io) Vado a scuola. I go to school.
    (Noi) Mangiamo della pasta. We eat some pasta.
    (Loro) Cantano molto forte. They are singing very loudly.
     

    Position of objects and pronouns

    Direct/indirect objects and reflexive pronouns

    Direct and indirect object pronouns substitute another elment; reflexive pronouns stress that the action is carried out by the subject itself.

    enlightened Pronouns: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Direct/Indirect/Reflexive pronoun + Verb + Rest of the sentence

    Italian English
    Io ti vedo. I see you.
    Maria si lava i capelli. Maria washes her hair.
    Mario la ama. Mario loves her.

    Direct and indirect object pronouns

    Indirect object pronouns generally precede direct object pronouns.

    enlightenedDirect and indirect object pronouns: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Indirect object pronouns + Direct object pronoun + Rest of the sentence

    Italian English
    Il negozio te lo regala. The store will gift it to you.
    Me la presteranno. They will lend it to me.
    Te le restituirò. I will give them back to you.

    Direct and indirect objects

    In Italian sentences, direct objects precede indirect objects.

    enlightened Direct and indirect objects: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Verb + Direct object + Indirect object

    Italian English
    Mario dà un libro a suo fratello. Mario give a book to his brother.
    La segretaria chiama un taxi al direttore. The secretary calls the director a taxi.
    Michele regala una bici a suo figlio. Michele gives a bike to his son.

     

    Position of adjectives

    Unlike English, adjectives generally follow the noun they refer to.

    Italian English
    Un maglione rosso A red sweater
    Un libro noioso A boring book
    Dei ragazzi interessanti Some interesting guys
     

    enlightenedRemember! Adjectives must always agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to.


    Adjectives can also precede the noun, and, in this case, the meaning conveyed is completely different.
    This happens with adjectives such as: Buono (Good), Grande (Big), Bravo (Good), Vecchio (Old).

    Noun + Adjective Adjective + Noun
    Un amico vecchio (A friend who is old) Un vecchio amico (An old friend)
    Un uomo grande (A big man, in size) Un grande uomo (An important man)

    Other adjectives as well could be placed before the noun, and it's mainly for stylistic purposes, to simply accentuate a specific meaning.

    Position of possessive adjectives

    Possessive adjectives help specify a possession. They agree in gender and number with the noun they refer to.

    enlightened Possessive adjective: Article + Possessive adjective + Noun + Rest of the sentence

    Italian English
    La mia macchina è rotta. My car is broken.
    Il suo accento è strano. His accent is weird.
    I nostri zii sono arrivati. Our uncles are here.
     

    Position of prepositions

    Simple and articulated prepositions are used to introduce a quality, a possession, a location or direction of a noun or verb; they are usually placed after the element they refer to.

    enlightened Prepositions: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + (Preposition + Information) + Verb + (Preposition + Information) + Rest of the sentence

    Check out the following examples.

    Italian English
    La casa di Maria è grande. Maria's house is big.
    (Io) Viaggio da Roma a Parigi. I travel from Rome to Paris.
     

    Position of adverbs

    Adverbs generally add a piece of information about the main verb.

    enlightened  Adverbs: (Adverb) + Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Verb + (Adverb) + Rest of the sentence + (Adverb)

    Adverbs of manner

    enlightened Adverbs of manner/ending in -mente: Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Verb + Adverb + Rest of the sentence

    Italian English
    Luigi mangia velocemente. Luigi eats quickly.
    Il cane cammina tranquillamente. The dog walks calmly.
    Lui parlava chiaramente. He was speaking in a clear way.
     

    Adverbs of place, time and frequency, quantity

    enlightened Adverbs of place, time and frequency, quantity: (Adverb) + Subject/(Personal pronoun) + Verb + (Adverb) + Rest of the sentence + (Adverb)

    These adverbs can go right after the verb as well as at the beginning or at the end of a sentence; it depends on the communicative intention.

    Italian English
    Domani (io) andrò al mare. Tomorrow I'll go to the sea.
    (Io) Ho preparato la cena stamattina. I made dinner this morning.
    (Tu) Non ascolti mai la musica punk. You never listen to punk music.