Adjective agreement in Italian (endings)
In Italian, adjectives change their form to agree with the gender and number of the noun they refer to.
- 1.Regular declension
- 2.Irregular declensions
- 2.1.Adjectives ending in -e
- 2.2.Adjectives ending in -a
- 2.3.Adjectives ending in -tore
- 2.4.Adjectives with roots ending in -c and -g
- 2.5.Invariable adjectives
- 3.Adjective agreement with more than one noun
- 3.1.Nouns of the same gender
- 3.2.Nouns of different gender
Most of Italian adjectives end in -o and follow the usual declension of nouns.
English speakers are not used to decline adjective nor articles.
il bravo alunno / la brava alunna → the good student
i bravi alunni / le brave alunne → the good students
However, a lot of adjectives have different endings and don't follow the general rule.
Adjectives ending in -e
Adjectives ending in -e in the singular only have two forms:
il compito difficile → the difficult task
la scelta difficile → the difficult choice
i compiti difficili → the difficult tasks
le scelte difficili → the difficult choices
Adjectives ending in -a
Adjectives ending in -a in the singular form, follow the gender of the noun only in the plural form.
Adjectives ending in -tore
Adjectives ending in -tore in the masculine singular form have the feminine declension in -trice.
Adjectives with roots ending in -c and -g
Adjectives whose roots end in -c or -g have spelling changes or sound changes in the plural.
Some adjectives never change their endings.
- adjectives ending in -i
- some adjectives indicating colours
|Ending in -i||
un numero pari
dei numeri pari
|an even number
some even numbers
una giacca rosa
|a pink jacket
some pink jackets
Adjective agreement with more than one noun
When an adjective refers to two or more nouns, the agreement depends on whether the nouns have the same gender or not.
Nouns of the same gender
If the nouns are all masculine or all feminine, the adjectives maintain this gender and are declined according to the plural form.
- masculine: lo zaino e l'astuccio rossi
red bag and pencil case
- feminine: la matita e la gomma gialle
yellow pencil and rubber
Nouns of different gender
If the nouns have different genders, the adjective is declined according to the masculine plural form:
la ragazza e il ragazzo spagnoli
the Spanish girl and boy
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