• Italian grammar
    0%
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • 12.4.1.1 Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.2 Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.3 Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.4 Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.5 Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.6 Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.7 Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4.1.8 Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • 12.5.2.1 Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.2 Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.3 Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.4 Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.5 Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.6 Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.7 Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.8 Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.9 Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.10 Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.11 Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.2.12 Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Conjugation of essere (to be) in Italian

    The verb essere (to be) is one of the most used verbs in Italian.

    Uses of the verb essere in Italian

    Essere has two main important usages:

    1. it is an independent verb, with its own meaning (to be);
    2. it is one of the main auxiliary verb, fundamental to form compound tenses of intransitive, reflexive and impersonal verbs.

     

    Example Translation
    Io sono molto stanca oggi. I am really tired today.
    Tu sei andato al cinema ieri? Did you to the cinema yesterday.
    Mi sono appena lavata le mani. I've just washed my hands.

     

    Conjugation of essere​

    The conjugation of essere is directly linked with the original Latin conjugation.

    For this reason, it is not possible to integrate it in the general classification of the three conjugation in Italian.

    Indicative

    Presente (Present Simple)

      Essere
    Io sono*
    Tu sei
    Egli / ella è
    Noi siamo
    Voi siete
    Essi / esse sono*

     

    *enlightenedCareful! As you can notice, the first singular form and the third plural form of the simple present is the same. You can disambiguate them thanks to the agreement between the subject (and its adjectives) and the verb itself. Moreover, it's easier to understand which is the subject in the compound tenses due to the endings of the past participle.
    e.g. Io sono felice. (I am happy) - Io sono venuto con voi ieri. (I came with you yesterday);
           Loro sono felici. (They are happy). - Loro non sono venuti con voi ieri. (They didn't come with you yesterday)

     

    Passato Prossimo (Present Perfect)

      Essere
    Io sono stato
    Tu sei stato
    Egli / ella è stato
    Noi siamo stati
    Voi siete stati
    Essi / esse sono stati

    Imperfetto (Imperfect)

      Essere
    Io ero
    Tu eri
    Egli / ella era
    Noi eravamo
    Voi eravate
    Essi / esse erano

    Trapassato Prossimo (Past Perfect)

      Essere
    Io ero stato
    Tu eri stato
    Egli / ella era stato
    Noi eravamo stati
    Voi eravate stati
    Essi / esse erano stati

    Passato Remoto (Absolute Past)

      Essere
    Io fui
    Tu fosti
    Egli / ella fu
    Noi fummo
    Voi foste
    Essi / esse fossero

    Trapassato Remoto (Preterite Perfect)

      Essere
    Io fui stato
    Tu fosti stato
    Egli / ella fu stato
    Noi fummo stati
    Voi foste stati
    Essi / esse furono stati

     

    Futuro Semplice (Future Simple)

      Essere
    Io sarò
    Tu sarai
    Egli / ella sarà
    Noi saremo
    Voi sarete
    Essi / esse saranno

     

    Futuro Anteriore (Future Perfect)

      Essere
    Io sarò stato
    Tu sarai stato
    Egli / ella sarà stato
    Noi saremo stati
    Voi sarete stati
    Essi / esse saranno stati

     

    Subjunctive

    Presente (Present)

      Essere
    (Che) io sia
    (Che) tu sia
    (Che) egli / ella sia
    (Che) noi siamo
    (Che) voi siate
    (Che) essi / esse siano

     

    Passato (Past)

      Essere
    (Che) io sia stato
    (Che) tu sia stato
    (Che) egli / ella sia stato
    (Che) noi siamo stati
    (Che) voi siate stati
    (Che) essi / esse siano stati

     

    Imperfetto (Imperfect)

      Essere
    (Che) io fossi
    (Che) tu fossi
    (Che) egli / ella fosse
    (Che) noi fossimo
    (Che) voi foste
    (Che) essi / esse fossero

     

    Trapassato (Past Perfect)

      Essere
    (Che) io fossi stato
    (Che) tu fossi stato
    (Che) egli / ella fosse stato
    (Che) noi fossimo stati
    (Che) voi foste stati
    (Che) essi / esse fossero stati

     

    Conditional

    Presente (Present)

      Essere
    Io sarei
    Tu saresti
    Egli / ella sarebbe
    Noi saremmo
    Voi sareste
    Essi / esse sarebbero

    Passato (Past)

      Essere
    Io sarei stato
    Tu saresti stato
    Egli / ella sarebbe stato
    Noi saremmo stati
    Voi sareste stati
    Essi / esse sarebbero stati

     

    Imperative 

      Present
    Io -
    Tu sii
    Egli / ella sia
    Noi siamo
    Voi siate
    Essi / esse siano

    Infinitive

    Present Past
    essere essere stato

     

    Participle

    Present Past
    (ènte, essènte) stato

     

    Gerund

    Present Past
    essèndo essendo stato

     

    Exercises

    Fill in the blanks with the correct form of essere in its own sense

    Fill in the blanks with the correct form of essere as auxiliary