Italian language uses mainly to auxiliary verbs, namely essere (to be) and avere (to have).
The auxiliary verbs are characterized by two main aspects:
|Verbs||Proper meaning||Auxiliary value|
|Essere||Io sono suo figlio. (I am her son)||Loro sono uscite insieme. (They went out together)|
|Avere||Voi avete una bellissimo gatto. (You have a beautiful cat)||Noi non avevamo capito nulla. (We didn't understand nothing)|
Avere as auxiliary is used with:
|Lavorare||Tu hai lavorato fino a tardi.||You worked till late.|
|Camminare||Egli ha camminato per arrivare a casa tua.||He walked to reach your house.|
|Ridere||Perché avete riso così tanto?||Why did you laugh so much?|
|Dormire||Il bambino ha dormito tutto il pomeriggio.||The child slept for all the afternoon.|
Essere as auxiliary is used with:
|Arrivare||Mia zia è arrivata ieri mattina.||My aunt arrived yesterday morning.|
|Scoppiare||Sono scoppiati tutti i palloncini.||All the baloons have burst.|
|Cadere||Il bambino è caduto mentre correva.||The boy has fallen while he was running.|
|Andare||Come è andato il tuo esame?||How was your exam?|
|Venire||Ieri è venuta con noi.||She came with us yesterday.|
|Stare||Credevo saresti stata a casa di tuo fratello.||I thought you would have stayed at your brother's.|
|Tornare||Come mai siete tornate qui?||Why did you come back here?|
|Nascere||Ieri è nata mia cugina.||Yesterday my cousin is born.|
|Chiamarsi||Quella città è chiamata la Città del Sole.||That city is called the City of Light.|
|Arrabbiarsi||Voi vi siete arrabbiati molto.||You really got angry.|
|Lavarsi||Tu ti sei sempre lavato la sera.||You have always washed yourself in the evening.|
There are some verbs that don't follow strictly this distinction.
Remember! You could find verbs with both essere and avere.
Unfortunately, there are not a clear way to identify these verbs.
The presence of essere or avere could depend on:
Ho vissuto in Inghilterra.
Sono vissuto in Inghilterra.
|I lived in England.|
Sono corso alla fermata dell'autobus.
Ho corso una maratona.
|I ran to the bus station.
I ran the marathon.
Hai finito presto i compiti.
Il film è finito tardi.
|You have finished your homework soon.
The movie finished late at night.
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