• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)Free
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 22.1 Italian sentence structure (word order) [0/4]
  • 22.2 Structure of complex Italian sentences [0/4]
  • 22.3 Not in Italian (negation, negative sentences) [0/3]
  • 22.4 Italian interrogative sentences (questions) [0/1]
  • 22.5 Italian conditional sentences (if-clauses) [0/1]
  • 22.6 Italian passive sentences [0/1]
  • 22.7 Italian impersonal construction (Si impersonale) [0/1]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Italian subjunctive (summary)

    The tenses belonging to the modo congiuntivo (subjunctive mood) express actions, placed in dependent and secondary clauses, related to opinions, desires, wishes, needs, and so on.

    There are four different tenses in the Italian subjunctive:

    • present (congiuntivo presente);
    • imperfect (congiuntivo imperfetto);
    • present perfect (congiuntivo passato);
    • past perfect (congiuntivo trapassato).  

    Conjugation of the Italian subjunctive

    Italian present subjunctive (congiuntivo presente)

    An interesting pattern to take into notice is the vowel switch which takes place in conjugation: verbs from the I conjugation use i in their endings, whereas those from the II and the III use a.

      parlare, "to talk" vendere, "to sell" scrivere, "to write"
    che io parli venda scriva
    che tu parli venda scriva
    che lui parli venda scriva
    che noi parliamo vendiamo scriviamo
    che voi parliate vendiate scriviate
    che loro parlino vendano scrivano

    Still, there are many irregular verb conjugations worth paying attention to:

    dire fare potere sedere uscire venire volere
    dica faccia possa sieda esca venga voglia
    dica faccia possa sieda esca venga voglia
    dica faccia possa sieda esca venga voglia
    diciamo facciamo possiamo sediamo usciamo veniamo vogliamo
    diciate facciate possiate sediate usciate veniate vogliate
    dicano facciano possano siedano escano vengano vogliano

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    Italian imperfect subjunctive (congiuntivo perfetto)

    The imperfect subjunctive is formed through substitution of the endings of the imperfect indicative with the following ones:

      parlare,"to talk" vendere, "to sell" scrivere, "to write"
    che io parlassi vendessi scrivessi
    che tu parlassi vendessi scrivessi
    che lui parlasse vendesse scrivesse
    che noi parlassimo vendessimo scrivessimo
    che voi parlaste vendeste scriveste
    che loro parlassero vendessero scrivessero

    Italian present perfect subjunctive (congiuntivo passato)

    Unlike the previous two tenses, the present perfect subjunctive (congiuntivo passato) is a compound verb.

    The conjugated forms of essere and avere (for intransitive and transitive verbs respectively) preceed the past participle form of the base verb.

      parlare, "to talk" (transitive)  uscire, "to go out" (intransitive)
    che io abbia parlato sia uscito
    che tu abbia parlato sia uscito
    che lui abbia parlato sia uscito
    che noi abbiamo parlato siamo usciti
    che voi abbiate parlato siate usciti
    che loro abbiano parlato siano usciti

    Italian past perfect subjunctive (congiuntivo trapassato)

    The congiuntivo trapassato is also a compound verb.

    It follows the very same set of the rules as the previous tense, with the auxiliary essere or avere conjugated differently.

      parlare, "to talk" (transitive) uscire, "to go out" (intransitive)
    che io avessi parlato fossi uscito
    che tu avessi parlato fossi uscito
    che lui avesse parlato fosse uscito
    che noi avessimo parlato fossimo usciti
    che voi aveste parlato foste usciti
    che loro avessero parlato fossero usciti

    Use of the Italian subjunctive

    The subjunctive has many functions in Italian, as it introduces subordinate clauses which integrate the sentence as either the subject or the object of the main verb.

    Most of the time - but not always - subordinate sentences in Italian are introduced by the conjunction che.

    Here some of the main uses for the subjunctive in Italian:

    • imposition of will and necessity;
    IT EN
    È necessario che tu faccia di più per rimanere in questa compagnia. It is necessary that you do more in order to stay in this firm.
    Volevamo che parlaste di altri argomenti durante la conferenza. We wanted you to discuss something else during the conference.
    Ci aspettiamo che entro settembre tu abbia fatto progressi. We expect you to have made some progress by September.
    È possibile che avesse già capito il problema tempo fa. It is possible that he had already understood the problem some time ago.


    • emotion and opinion;
    IT EN
    A loro piace che il caffè sia ben caldo. They like the coffee to be well warm.
    Speravo che veniste alla festa. I was hoping you would come to the party.
    Sono felice che tu abbia superato l'esame. I am glad you have passed the exam.
    Il fatto che fossero riusciti in quell'impresa rese la città orgogliosa. The fact that they succeeded in that effort made the city proud.


    • doubt and negation;
    IT EN
    Non credo che Giancarlo possa aiutarci. I don't think Giancarlo could help us.
    Non era vero che Veronica avesse paura di trasferirsi all'estero. It's not true that Veronica was afraid to move abroad.
    Supponiamo che Andrea abbia trascorso la settimana viaggiando. We suppose Andrea has spent the whole week travelling.
    Gli è sembrato che la pasta non fosse cotta abbastanza. It seemed to him that the pasta was not cooked enough.