Adverbs (gli avverbi) generally add a piece of information about the main verb.
Adverbs are used to describe:
Adverbs of manner are used to express how an action is carried out.
Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding the suffix -mente to a qualifying adjective. -mente could roughly correspond to -ly.
Note that some spelling changes may occur and the final adverb form could vary.
These adverbs are invariable and add a temporal specification.
|Dopodomani||The day after tomorrow|
The day before yesterday
Adverbs of place pinpoint a location. They are all invariable.
In front of/Facing
Next to/Close to
|A sinistra||On the left|
|A destra||On the right|
|Da qualche parte||Somewhere|
|Da nessuna parte||Nowhere|
Adverbs of quantity add information about an amount, a scale. They are invariable.
A little bit
|Altrettanto||As much as|
This category of adverbs is particularly useful to express an opinion.
|Proprio||Right (that thing)|
|Without a doubt/Undoubtedly|
With the following adverbs it's possible to express an uncertainty and ask questions.
Why/For what reason
An adverbial phrase is a construction of two or more words that act as an adverb.
These expressions are very common in everyday language.
Examples include: A piedi (on foot), A sinistra (on the left), Così e così (So and so)
Comparative and superlative constructions are used to make comparisons between two or more terms.
There are three kinds of comparatives.
|Comparative of minority||Più (More) + Adverb + di||Più velocemente (Faster)|
|Comparative of minority||Meno + Adverb +di||Meno velocemente (Slower)|
|Comparative of equality||Tanto + Adverb + quanto||Tanto velocemente quanto (As fast as)|
There are also two kinds of superlatives.
|Relative||Determinative article + più/meno + Adverb||Il più velocemente (The fastest way)|
|Absolute||Adjective + superlative suffixes + mente||Velocissimamente (Superfast)|
There are no fixed rules to define the position of adverbs.
Their spot in a sentence can change; an adverb can emphasise a specific part of the sentence according to the speaker's communicative intentions.
We could say that if an adverb directly modifies the verb, it's located closer to it.
If an adverb modifies the whole sentence, it's generally further from the verb.
Check out the following examples.
Ieri siamo andati al cinema. (We went to the cinema yesterday.)
Siamo andati al cinema ieri. (We [already] went to the cinema yesterday.)
There is one substantial difference between adverbs and adjectives.
Adverbs add information to the verb and are unvariable, while adjectives add information to the
noun and agree in gender and number with it.
Take a look at the following examples:
|Claudia ha mangiato troppa pasta.|
(Claudia ate too much pasta.)
|Claudia è molto sazia.|
(Claudia is very full.)
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|1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so)|
|2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now)|
|3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there)|
|4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough)|
|5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither)|
|6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative|