Conjugation of dovere (must) in Italian
The Italian modal verb dovere expresses duty or the necessity to do something. It's the equivalent of English to have to and must.
It has an irregular conjugation, and therefore presents many different forms for each tense.
How to use the verb dovere in Italian
Unlike English must and to have to, which convey two different types of duty, in Italian dovere can specity both the need and the obligation to perform the action introduced by the verb.
|Devo andare a scuola.||I have to go to school.
I must go to school.
How to conjugate dovere in Italian
Below you can find the complete conjugation of dovere. Like you will notice, this verb has not the imperative mood.
|Present||Present Perfect||Imperfect||Past Perfect||Absolute Past||Preterite Perfect||Future Simple||Future Perfect|
|Io||devo||ho dovuto||dovevo||avevo dovuto||dovetti||ebbi dovuto||dovrò||avrò dovuto|
|Tu||devi||hai dovuto||dovevi||avevi dovuto||dovesti||avesti dovuto||dovrai||avrai dovuto|
|Egli / ella||deve||ha dovuto||doveva||aveva dovuto||dovette||ebbe dovuto||dovrà||avrà dovuto|
|Noi||dobbiamo||abbiamo dovuto||dovevamo||avevamo dovuto||dovemmo||avemmo dovuto||dovremo||avremo dovuto|
|Voi||dovete||avete dovuto||dovevate||avevate dovuto||doveste||aveste dovuto||dovrete||avrete dovuto|
|Essi / esse||devono||hanno dovuto||dovevano||avevano dovuto||dovettero||ebbero dovuto||dovranno||avranno dovuto|
|(Che) io||debba||abbia dovuto||dovessi||avessi dovuto|
|(Che) tu||debba||abbia dovuto||dovessi||avessi dovuto|
|(Che) egli / ella||debba||abbia dovuto||dovesse||avesse dovuto|
|(Che) noi||dobbiamo||abbiamo dovuto||dovessimo||avessimo dovuto|
|(Che) voi||dobbiate||abbiate dovuto||doveste||aveste dovuto|
|(Che) essi / esse||debbano||abbiano dovuto||dovessero||avessero dovuto|
|Egli / ella||dovrebbe||avrebbe dovuto|
|Essi / esse||dovrebbero||avrebbero dovuto|
The conditional conjugation of dovere is very used to express advice or counsel. It could be compared to the should clause in English.
e.g. Credo che dovresti tornare al lavoro. (I think you should get back to work)
Oggi avrei dovuto studiare, ma non ne avevo voglia! (I should have studied today, but I didn't really feel like).
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