• Italian grammar
  • 1 Italian alphabet and pronunciation (letters,...)
  • 2 Function of Italian words (subject, object)
  • 3 Italian articles (the/a, an) [0/16]
  • 4 Italian numbers (cardinal, ordinal) [0/7]
  • 5 Italian nouns [0/13]
  • 6 Italian adjectives [0/17]
  • 6.1 Adjective agreement in Italian (endings) [0/2]
  • 6.2 Qualifying adjectives in Italian [0/3]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in Italian (my, your, his/her...) [0/3]
  • 6.4 Demonstrative adjectives in Italian (this, that) [0/2]
  • 6.5 Indefinite adjectives in Italian (some, any...) [0/3]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in Italian (one, the first...) [0/2]
  • 6.7 Interrogative adjectives in Italian (what/which,...) [0/2]
  • 6.8 List of adjectives in Italian (A-Z)
  • 7 Italian pronouns [0/28]
  • 7.1 Personal pronouns in Italian [0/6]
  • 7.2 Relative pronouns (who, that, which, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.3 Possessive pronouns in Italian (mine, yours, his, ...) [0/4]
  • 7.4 Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, ...) in Italian [0/3]
  • 7.5 Indefinite pronouns (few, some, many, ...) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.6 Interrogative pronouns (who, what, which) in Italian [0/4]
  • 7.7 Reflexive pronouns in Italian (myself, each other) [0/3]
  • 8 Italian prepositions [0/25]
  • 8.1 Italian simple prepositions [0/20]
  • 8.1.1 Italian preposition "di" (of, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.2 Italian preposition "a" (at, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.3 Italian preposition "da" (by, from,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.4 Italian preposition "in" (in, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.5 Italian preposition "con" (with) [0/1]
  • 8.1.6 Italian preposition "su" (on, over,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.7 Italian preposition "per" (for, to,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.8 Italian prepositions "tra/ fra" (between, among,...) [0/1]
  • 8.1.9 "On" in Italian (su)
  • 8.1.10 "To" in Italian [0/4]
  • 8.1.11 Italian prepositions of place and time [0/3]
  • 8.1.12 Simple preposition chart - English to Italian [0/5]
  • 8.2 Italian articulated prepositions [0/3]
  • 8.3 Expressions with Italian prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Italian adverbs [0/24]
  • 9.1 Italian adverbs of manner (good, bad, so) [0/4]
  • 9.2 Italian adverbs of frequency and time (always, now) [0/4]
  • 9.3 Italian adverbs of place (here, there) [0/4]
  • 9.4 Italian adverbs of quantity (more, nothing, enough) [0/3]
  • 9.5 Italian affirmation/negation adverbs (Yes, No, Neither) [0/4]
  • 9.6 Italian adverbs of doubt, interrogative/exclamative [0/5]
  • 10 Italian comparatives, superlatives (adjectives/adverbs) [0/7]
  • 11 Italian tenses and verb conjugation [0/17]
  • 11.1 Present tense in Italian (presente indicativo) [0/2]
  • 11.2 Past tenses in Italian [0/11]
  • 11.3 Future tenses in Italian [0/4]
  • 12 Italian verbs [0/94]
  • 12.1 Functions and classification of Italian verbs [0/1]
  • 12.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.3 Active voice and passive voice in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.4 Italian regular verbs [0/30]
  • 12.4.1 First conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -are) [0/16]
  • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the first conjugation (Score -/-)
  • Conjugation of abitare (to dwell) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of amare (to love) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of giocare (to play) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of lavorare (to work) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mangiare (to eat) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of parlare (to speak) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of studiare (to study) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of pagare (to pay) in Italian [0/1]
  • 12.4.2 Second conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ere) [0/6]
  • 12.4.3 Third conjugation in Italian (verbs ending in -ire) [0/8]
  • 12.5 Italian irregular verbs [0/38]
  • 12.5.1 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -are [0/8]
  • 12.5.2 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ere [0/24]
  • Conjugation of sapere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of leggere (to read) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of mettere (to put) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of piacere (to like) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of rimanere (to remain, to stay) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of conoscere (to know) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of scrivere (to write) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of vivere (to live) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of chiudere (to close, to shut) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of prendere (to take, to catch) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of bere (to drink) in Italian [0/2]
  • Conjugation of tenere (to hold, to keep) in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.5.3 Conjugation of irregular verbs ending in -ire [0/6]
  • 12.6 Italian modal verbs [0/6]
  • 12.7 Italian reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 12.8 Verbi sovrabbondanti in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.9 Verbi difettivi in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.10 Verbi fraseologici in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.11 Verbi impersonali in Italian [0/2]
  • 12.12 Auxiliary verbs (essere, avere) in Italian [0/5]
  • 12.13 Verbs and prepositions in Italian
  • 13 Italian moods
  • 14 Indicative mood in Italian
  • 15 Subjunctive in Italian [0/9]
  • 16 Conditional in Italian [0/4]
  • 17 Infinitive in Italian [0/1]
  • 18 Imperative in Italian [0/3]
  • 19 Gerund in Italian [0/3]
  • 20 Present participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 21 Past participle in Italian [0/1]
  • 22 Italian sentences [0/15]
  • 23 Italian conjunctions [0/4]
  • Gerund in Italian

    The modo gerundio (gerund mood) is one of the non-finite and impersonal moods of the Italian language.

    It has got two tenses:

    1. Gerundio presente (present)
    2. Gerundio passato (past)

    Definition and usage of the Italian gerundio

    The gerundio in Italian has the same meaning as the -ing form in English.
    Its use is usually related to subordinate clauses and the subject is the one of the conjugated verb of the main clause.


    • Salendo (io) sul pullman, (io) sono caduta (While I was getting on the bus, I fell)
    • Andando (noi) al mare, (noi) siamo passati per la tua città (While we were going to the seaside, we drove through your city)

    The gerundio can have three different functions based on the relationship with the main clause:

    1. Gerundio subordinato: it changes based on the type of subordinate clause. The main ones are: causali, ipotetiche, concessive, temporali and modali
    2. Gerundio appositivo: it replaces the participio presente
    3. Gerundio coordinato: it corresponds to a coordinate clause. In this case the gerund action takes place during or after the action of the main clause.
      Example Translation
    Gerundio subordinato: causali
    • Avendo già visto quel film, non sono andata con loro
    • Avendo perso le chiavi, non ho potuto entrare in casa
    • Having already watched (since I had already watched) that film I didn't go with them
    • Having lost (since I had lost) my keys, I couldn't enter the house
    Gerundio subordinato: ipotetiche
    • Potendo, partirei per una vacanza
    • Avendo la possibilità, comprerei un aereo privato
    • If I could, I would go on holiday
    • If I could, I would buy a private jet
    Gerundio subordinato: concessive
    • Pur essendo giugno, fa ancora freddo
    • Pur essendo arrivato in città molto tempo fa, non conosce ancora nessuno
    • Despite the fact that we are in June, it's still cold
    • Even if he arrived in the city a long time ago, he doesn't know anyone yet
    Gerundio subordinato: temporali
    • Tornando a casa, comprerò del formaggio
    • Ascoltando il suo CD preferito, sorseggiava del tè freddo a bordo piscina
    • On my way home, I'll buy some cheese
    • While (he was) listening to his favourite CD, he drank iced tea close to the swimming pool
    Gerundio subordinato: modali
    • Sono dimagrita diventando vegana
    • Ho imparato il portoghese passando l'estate in Portogallo
    • I've become thinner by becoming vegan
    • I've learnt Portuguese by spending the summer in Portugal
    Gerundio appositivo
    • Il bambino, stringendo il suo peluche il più forte possibile, iniziò a piangere
    • La bambina, gridando, si avvicinò
    • The kid, holding as hard as he could his teddy bear, started to cry
    • The kid, crying, came closer
    Gerundio coordinato
    • Luca giocava correndo per la strada
    • Mara passeggiava cantando la sua canzone preferita
    • Luca played running in the street
    • Mara walked singing her favourite song


    Periphrasis with the gerundio (present progressive in Italian)

    The Italian gerund can also be used with the verbs stare and andare to indicate that an action is taking place in the exact moment of the utterance or that an action is gradually changing (azione progressiva):

    1) stare + gerundio: 

    • Non puoi parlare con Giuseppe andesso perchè sta studiando (You cannot talk to Giuseppe now because he is studying)
    • Sto parlando, non interrompermi per piacere (I'm talking, don't interrupt me please)

    enlightenedUnlike English, in Italian this periphrasis cannot be used to indicate future actions.
    Example: Cosa stai facendo? (What are you doing?) - contemporary action
    Stasera vengo alle 21 (Tonight I'm coming at 9 pm.) - future action

    2) andare + gerundio:

    • La situazione del paese va migliorando grazie alle politiche del governo (The country's situation is improving thanks to the government's politics)
    • Il riscaldamento globale va aumentando sempre di più ogni giorno (Global warming is increasing more and more every day)

    Conjugation of the Italian gerund

    As already said, the gerund has two tenses:

    1. the present gerund is formed by adding -ando to the root of the verbs belonging to the first conjugation or -endo to the verbs belonging to the second and third conjugations.
    2. the past gerund is a compound tense formed by the auxiliary verbs essere and avere + the past participle form of the main verb.
      Its meaning is similar to English expressions such as having done, having finished etc...

    Regular verbs in the gerundio

    Regular verbs form the gerundio (both present and past) as follows:

    Verbs that belong to the -are conjugation

    Example amare (to love)

    Gerundio presente Gerundio passato Example Translation
    am - ando avendo amato
    • Pur amando molto la musica, non sono mai andato ad un concerto
    • Avendo amato sua moglie, Luigi si mise a piangere quando ella morì
    • Despite the fact that I really love music, I've never been to a concert
    • Having loved his wife, Luigi started crying when she died


    Verbs that belong to the -ere conjugation

    Example credere (to believe)

    Gerundio presente Gerundio passato Example Translation
    cred - endo avendo creduto
    • Credendo di non essere stato visto, il ladro saltò dalla finestra
    • Avendo creduto alle parole di Riccardo, Luisa confessò la verità
    • Believing he hadn't been seen, the thief jumped out of the window
    • Having believed to Riccardo's words, Luisa confessed the truth


    Verbs that belong to the -ire conjugation

    Example dormire (to sleep)

    Gerundio presente Gerundio passato Example Translation
    dorm - endo avendo dormito
    • Domendo, non sento alcun rumore
    • Avendo dormito tutta la notte, mi sento riposato
    • I cannot hear any noise while sleeping
    • Having slept all night long, I feel refreshed


    Irregular verbs in the gerundio

    There are few irregular verbs in the gerundio. Here is a table to help you to study the main ones:

      Gerundio presente Gerundio passato
    Bere (to drink) bev - endo avendo bevuto
    Fare (to do/make) fac - endo avendo fatto
    Dire (to say) dic - endo avendo detto


    Auxiliary verbs: essere/avere

    Here is the conjugation for the auxiliary verbs essere and avere in the gerund mood:

      Gerundio presente Gerundio passato
    Essere (to be) ess - endo essendo stato/a/i/e
    Avere (to have) av - endo avendo avuto


    Now don't forget to try our exercises on the Italian gerund!


    Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the gerundio

    Spot the verbs in the gerundio

    Choose the correct form of the gerundio