• French grammar
    0%
  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/10]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • 10.1.1.1 Present tense in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.1.2 Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • 10.1.1.3 Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • 13
  • French adjectives

    What is an adjective?

    Adjectives (French: les adjectifs) in general are qualifying nouns which are used to describe a noun. Also, they tell you more about a person or thing, their appearance and aspects like color, size or other descriptif qualities.

    When we speak about using adjectives in the French language it's important to mention that there are differences to the English language. 

    Adjectives can also be determinants and are several categories:

    • Demonstrative adjectives
    • Possessive adjectives
    • Numeral adjectives
    • Indefinite adjectives
    • Interrogative adjectives
    • Exclamatives adjectives

    Function of the French adjectives 

    The adjective qualifying can be

    • epithet
    • attribute

    The epithet adjective in French 

    We speak of an epithet when the adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun, without preposition and without verb. It can be deleted, which sometimes requires modifying the determinant.

    Examples: 

    • Une grande maison. (A big house)
    • Une jolie fille. (A beautiful girl)
    • Son énorme cadeau. (His huge gift)
    • Une femme brave. (A strong woman)

    The Adjective attribute of the subject in French

    We speak of attribute of the subject when the adjective is used with a verb of state. He agrees with the subject. To verify, we can always replace a verb of state by the verb être

    The French state verbs are seven:

    • Sembler (To seem)
    • Paraitre (To seem)
    • Deumerer (To remain)
    • Rester (To stay)
    • être (To be)
    • Devenir (To become)
    • Avoir l'air (To look like)

    Examples: 

    Epithet adjective Une grande femme (A tall woman)
    Attribute La femme semblait grande (The woman seemed tall)

    Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives (The feminine) 

    The feminine of the adjectives is usually formed by adding an e at the end of the word. 

    • Un petit garçon -----> une petite fille 
    • Un mauvais devoir ------> une mauvaise note

    But there are many exceptions for adjectives ending in -gu, -ul, -el, -eil, -iel, -ien, -en, -on, -teur, -eau, -ier, -iet

    1. The adjectives ending en -eau have their feminine in -elle 
    2. The adjectives ending en -gu have their feminine in -e with a umlet in the e 
    3. The adjectives ending in -ier or -iet have their feminine in ière or iète
    4. The adjectives ending in -ul, -el, -eil or -iel double their -l and take a final e
    5. The adjectives ending in -ien, -in or -on double their n and take a final e 
    6. The adjectives ending in -eur can have their feminine in -euse or -eure
    7. Some adjectives in -teur have their feminine ending in -trice 
    Masculine Feminine
    beau, nouveau belle, nouvelle
    ambigu ambiguë
    inquiet inquiète
    nul, vieil nulle, vieille
    bon bonne
    meilleur, rêveur meilleure, rêveuse
    protecteur protectrice

    Plural of adjectives in French

    French adjectives must agree with the gender and number of nouns they want to modify.

    Adjective: grand (big)

     Masculine singular  grand
     Feminine singular  grande
     Masculine plural  grands
     Feminine plural  grandes

    Exceptions

    Even if the general rule is that the plural ends with -s there are some exceptions ! 

    1. Adjectives ending in -al 

    All adjectives ending in -al have their plural ending in -aux except for bancal, fatal, naval, final, banal, natal which ends with s 

    Examples: 

    • Des combats fatals (fatal battles)
    • Les appartements royaux (Royal apartments)

    2. Adjectives ending in -eau and -eu

    Those adjectives always have their plural ending in -x

    Examples: 

    • De beaux cheveux (Beautiful hairs)
    • Des villages hébreux. (Hebrew town)

    3. Adjectives ending in -s or -x are invariable in the plural

    • Un voyage merveilleux (A wonderful trip)
    • Un garçon fabuleux (An incredible boy)

    enlightenedAll adjectives of colors take an -s in the plural except if they are followed by another adjective. 

    • Des chemise vertes -----> Des chemises vert clair.  

    enlightenedThese exceptions only applies to masculine adjectives, if they are to the feminine, they take their plural with -s

      Masculine Feminine
    Singular Un garçon heureux Une fille heureuse
    Plural Des garçons heureux Des filles heureuses

    The comparative of French adjectives 

    The comparative (French: le comparatif) makes it possible to compare two things or two people, using the adverbs plus (superiority), moins (inferiority) or aussi (equality).

    In the French, we can find different comparatives

    The comparative of superiority: plus + adjective + que

    • Mon vélo est plus rapide que le tien. (My bike is faster than yours)

    The comparative of inferiority: moins + adjective + que

    • Mon vélo est moins rapide que le tien. (My bike is slower than yours)

    The comparative of equality: aussi + adjective + aussi

    • Mon vélo est aussi rapide que le tien. (My bike is as fast as yours)

    Exceptions

    Adjectives Comparative Translations
    Bon Meilleur (Better)
    Mauvais Pire (Worse)
    Petit Moindre (Smaller)

    Placement of the French adjectives

    About the position of the adjectives, most of the adjectives epithets are placed after the name but some are placed before. There are adjectives that can be placed before or after the noun and change the meaning of the sentence. 

    Examples

    • Un grand homme (A big man) talks about the big achievement of a man 
    • Un homme grand (A tall man) talks about the height of a man 
    • C'est une seule dame (It's only a woman) talks about the number of woman
    • C'est une dame seule (It's a lonely woman) talks about the loneliness of a woman

    Determinants adjectives

    French possessive adjectives

    The possessive adjective (French: l'adjectif possessif) is used to designate a possessor. It agrees with the noun it refers to. 

    Personal prounouns Masculine singular Feminine singular Feminine/Masculine plural
    Je mon ma mes
    Tu ton ta tes
    Il/Elle son sa ses
    Nous notre notre nos
    Vous votre votre vos
    Ils/elles leur leur leurs

    enlightenedIn front of the vowels: a, e, i, o, u, h the feminine singular ma, ta, sa becomes mon, ton, son

    • École (school) is a feminine noun so we should say "ma école" but because of the e we say "mon école"

    Examples

    Possessive adjectives Translations
    Ta tante est vieille (Your aunt is old)
    Mon père a acheté une voiture (My father bought a car)
    Ses parents sont américains (Her parents are americans)
    Votre soeur est une grande dame (Your sister is a "grande dame")

    French demonstrative adjectives

    A demonstrative adjective (French: l'adjectif démonstratif) is used to designate something. We use the demonstrative adjectives ce, cet, cette or ces for the plural nouns. The demonstrative adjective agrees with the name to which it refers.

    Masculine singular ce, cet
    Feminine singular cette
    Masculine plural ces
    Feminine plural ces

    enlightenedThe masculine singular cet is used in front of vowels a, e, i, o, u, y, h otherwise you use "ce"

    Examples

    Demonstratives adjectives Translations
    Ce livre (This book)
    Cet homme (This man)
    Cette soirée (That night)
    Ces enfants (These kids)

    French indefinite adjectives 

    The indefinite adjective (l'adjectif indefini) express quantity. Quantity is expressed with indefinite adjectives like:

    • quelques 
    • plusieurs
    • certains
    • d'autres
    • chaque
    • tout

    The indefinite adjective "tout"

    The indefinite adjective tout agrees with the noun it refers to. And sometimes can be followed by an article. 

      Singular Plural
    Masculine tout tous
    Feminine toute toutes

    Examples

    Indefinite adjectives Translations
    Quelques étudiants (A few students)
    Plusieurs étudiants (Several students)
    Certains étudiants (Some students)
    D'autres étudiants (Others students)
    Chaque étudiant (Each student)
    Tous les étudiants (All the students)

    Exercises

    Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French

    Next lessons

    1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives Get an overview about the formation of French adjectives and study this topic online.
    2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives Get an overview about comparisons and superlatives of French adjectives and study this topic online.
    3 Placement of French adjectives Get an overview about the placement of French adjectives and study this topic online.
    4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son Get an overview about all French possessive adjectives and study them online.
    5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette Get an overview about the possessive adjectives in the French language and study them online.
    6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques Get an overview about all French indefinite adjectives and study them online.