Adjectives (French: les adjectifs) in general are qualifying nouns which are used to describe a noun. Also, they tell you more about a person or thing, their appearance and aspects like color, size or other descriptif qualities.
When we speak about using adjectives in the French language it's important to mention that there are differences to the English language.
Adjectives can also be determinants and are several categories:
The adjective qualifying can be
We speak of an epithet when the adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun, without preposition and without verb. It can be deleted, which sometimes requires modifying the determinant.
We speak of attribute of the subject when the adjective is used with a verb of state. He agrees with the subject. To verify, we can always replace a verb of state by the verb être
The French state verbs are seven:
|Epithet adjective||Une grande femme||(A tall woman)|
|Attribute||La femme semblait grande||(The woman seemed tall)|
The feminine of the adjectives is usually formed by adding an e at the end of the word.
But there are many exceptions for adjectives ending in -gu, -ul, -el, -eil, -iel, -ien, -en, -on, -teur, -eau, -ier, -iet.
|beau, nouveau||belle, nouvelle|
|nul, vieil||nulle, vieille|
|meilleur, rêveur||meilleure, rêveuse|
French adjectives must agree with the gender and number of nouns they want to modify.
Adjective: grand (big)
Even if the general rule is that the plural ends with -s there are some exceptions !
1. Adjectives ending in -al
All adjectives ending in -al have their plural ending in -aux except for bancal, fatal, naval, final, banal, natal which ends with s
2. Adjectives ending in -eau and -eu
Those adjectives always have their plural ending in -x
3. Adjectives ending in -s or -x are invariable in the plural
All adjectives of colors take an -s in the plural except if they are followed by another adjective.
These exceptions only applies to masculine adjectives, if they are to the feminine, they take their plural with -s.
|Singular||Un garçon heureux||Une fille heureuse|
|Plural||Des garçons heureux||Des filles heureuses|
The comparative (French: le comparatif) makes it possible to compare two things or two people, using the adverbs plus (superiority), moins (inferiority) or aussi (equality).
In the French, we can find different comparatives
The comparative of superiority: plus + adjective + que
The comparative of inferiority: moins + adjective + que
The comparative of equality: aussi + adjective + aussi
About the position of the adjectives, most of the adjectives epithets are placed after the name but some are placed before. There are adjectives that can be placed before or after the noun and change the meaning of the sentence.
The possessive adjective (French: l'adjectif possessif) is used to designate a possessor. It agrees with the noun it refers to.
|Personal prounouns||Masculine singular||Feminine singular||Feminine/Masculine plural|
In front of the vowels: a, e, i, o, u, h the feminine singular ma, ta, sa becomes mon, ton, son
|Ta tante est vieille||(Your aunt is old)|
|Mon père a acheté une voiture||(My father bought a car)|
|Ses parents sont américains||(Her parents are americans)|
|Votre soeur est une grande dame||(Your sister is a "grande dame")|
A demonstrative adjective (French: l'adjectif démonstratif) is used to designate something. We use the demonstrative adjectives ce, cet, cette or ces for the plural nouns. The demonstrative adjective agrees with the name to which it refers.
|Masculine singular||ce, cet|
The masculine singular cet is used in front of vowels a, e, i, o, u, y, h otherwise you use "ce"
|Ce livre||(This book)|
|Cet homme||(This man)|
|Cette soirée||(That night)|
|Ces enfants||(These kids)|
The indefinite adjective (l'adjectif indefini) express quantity. Quantity is expressed with indefinite adjectives like:
The indefinite adjective tout agrees with the noun it refers to. And sometimes can be followed by an article.
|Quelques étudiants||(A few students)|
|Plusieurs étudiants||(Several students)|
|Certains étudiants||(Some students)|
|D'autres étudiants||(Others students)|
|Chaque étudiant||(Each student)|
|Tous les étudiants||(All the students)|
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