• French grammar
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  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)Free
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • Drag and drop exercise about the adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blank exercise about the regular form of the adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blank exercise about the irregular adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Adverbs of place in French [0/2]
  • 8.2 Adverbs of time in French [0/2]
  • 8.3 Adverbs of manner in French [0/2]
  • 8.4 Adverbs of quantity in French [0/2]
  • 8.5 Adverbs of reason in French [0/2]
  • 8.6 Placement of adverbs in French [0/2]
  • 8.7 Comparative of French adverbs [0/2]
  • 8.8 Difference adjectives and adverbs in French [0/1]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/10]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • 10.1.1.1 Present tense in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.1.2 Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • 10.1.1.3 Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • 13
  • The French alphabet is the alphabet used to write French. It uses the modern Latin alphabet with its 26 letters to which must be added the letters from five diacritics, which then enrich it with thirteen accentuated vowels and the grapheme c cedilla "ç", as well as two ligatures e in the a " æ Æ "and e in the o" œ Œ ". It is therefore a total of 42 letters that make up the French alphabet.

    In this chapter, you will get an overview about the French alphabet, the look and the differences between them 

    What are the letters of the alphabet in French ?

    Fundamental French alphabet

    Capital letters Small letters Examples
    A a Annie, acheter
    B b Boris, belle
    C c Cloé, cloue
    D d David, déménager
    E e Elliot, emeraude
    F f France, faillite
    G g Gérard, garantir
    H h Hélène, hache
    I i Irma, idiot
    J j Jacques, jouer
    K k Koweit, kérastase
    L l Lionel, lance
    M m Mona, moule
    N n Nathalie, nappe
    O o Omari, oublier
    P p Pascal, pierre
    Q q Quentin, quille
    R r Rosalie, roue
    S s Sylvia, scier
    T t Théo, tatouage
    U u Ursula, unité
    V v Victor, voyage
    W w William, wagon
    X x Xavier, xénophobe
    Y y Yoan, yoyo
    Z z Zoé, zèbre

    enlightenedThere are 6 vowels in French: a, e, y, o, u, i 

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    The proper alphabet in French

    These letters are variant of the fundamental alphabet and can be taken from the Latin language.

    Capital letters Small letters Examples
    À à  voi
    Â â Bâtir
    Ç ç garçon
    É é éphémère
    Ê ê Tête
    È  è élève
    Ë  ë Canoë
    Î î Accroître
    Ï ï Caïman
    Ô ô Hôtel
    Ü ü  Capharnaüm
    Û û  Bûche
    Ù ù  où

    The grave accent in the French alphabet

    In French, only the vowels a, e, u can take a grave accent. The French grave accent is (`) and the vowels which take it are: 

    Alphabet Examples Translation
    à Je vais à Paris (I am going to Paris)
    è La lèpre (Leprosy)
    ù Où vas tu ?  (Where are you going)

    With the vowels a and u, the accent does not modify the pronunciation but is only used for the homonym. and ù is also the interrogative or relative pronoun used to differentiate it from the coordinating conjunction. 

    With the vowel e, the accent indicates the pronunciation of an open e

    enlightenedThe "e" grave accent appears in a word ending in "s".

    • Après, dès, excès, accès, procès, près
       

    The circumflex accent in the French alphabet 

    In French, the letters a, e, i, o, u can take this accent and is written (ˆ) and it indicates 

    • the pronunciation of an a, an e or an o
    • the amassment of an old letter
    • fortuitously, as a discriminating sign to distinguish homophones

    Generally, you use it to "open" the vowel, 

    Alphabet Examples Translation
    â Pâques (Easter)
    ê Fenêtre (Window)
    î Epître (Epistle)
    ô Hôpital (Hospital)
     û Piqûre (Sting)

    enlightenedThe circumflex accent is sometimes used to signal a missing letter

    enlightenedSince 1990, the circumflex accent is barely used on the i and u: you use it on conjugated verbs in the past simple, subjunctive imperfect and the pluperfect 

    The acute accent in the French alphabet 

    In French, you can find an acute accent (ˊ) on the vowel e used to distinguish the phoneme with the closed tone /e/ from the phoneme /ə/. 

    You can meet it exceptionally on:

    • open e /ɛ / 
    • in inverted subject verbs (aimé-je)
    • in some verbal forms (je protégerais)
    • in some words (évènement)

    ​The ç in the French alphabet 

    The ç changes the pronunciation of the alphabet letter c. You can put it in front of letters like: a, o, u. 

    Alphabet Example Translation
    a Façade (Frontage)
    o leçon (Lesson)
    u Reçu (Receipt)

    The umlet in the French alphabet

    The umlet are the two points that you put on the e, i, u to indicate that the preceding vowel must be pronounced separately.

    The usage of ë, ü is rather rare in French and is only found in two categories of words. It is found in certain words where the umlaut indicates that:

    • the preceding vowel is pronounced separately
    • in particular names proper or words with several current spellings 
    Alphabet Examples Translation
    e Noël (Christmas)
    i Maïs (Corn)
    u Ambigüe (Ambiguous)

    enlightenedLearn about the pronunciation of all these letters of the French alphabet in the following page !