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Demonstrative pronouns (French: les pronoms démonstratifs) usually stand alone and do not attend a noun. In general they are commonly used instead of a noun to point out certain people or things.
In the French language we can differ between:
The simple form (French: les formes simples) is used if:
1. the demonstrative pronoun is followed by a relative pronoun.
In this context it can mean the one, the ones, he (she) who, these or those.
2. the demonstrative pronoun is followed by de.
In this connection it intends to show posessions.
Please note that ce is always used in the singular fotm. even if the following verb is used in the plural form.
The compound form (French: les formes composées) is being used if the simple form cannot be used.
To differ between this one, that one and these, the additional suffixes -ci (this) and là (that) are being applied.
Celui-ci can be replaced by ce dernier and celui-là by le premier.
The indefinite demonstrative pronouns refer to a whole word group or sentence. In French we differ between the following three different indefinite forms: ce, ceci, cela (ça)
Ce (c') is mainly used with the verb être but sometimes also with the verbs aller, devoir and pouvoir.
It's used with the verb être:
1. before a noun that is modified.
2. before a proper noun.
3.before a pronoun.
4. before a superlative.
5. before an infinitive.
6. before an adverb.
7. as a neuter subject.
Note that ce is used to represent something that has preceded whereas the pronoun il is used to announce something that follows.
The indefinite demonstrative pronouns ceci and cela (ça) are being used to replace an indefinite expression or an idea. Ça is utilized for a more familiar and informal style. Cela is used when the expression has already been metioned while ceci aims to introduce the expression.
Keep in mind that like celui-ci and celui-là, ceci refers to the closest thing mentioned and cela to the farthest thing.
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