The words (French: les mots) are classified into different categories. Every word in a sentence has a very specific role. This role is called "function".
Example: → Mon amie travaille en France (my friend works in France)
In this example, "amie" and "France" are nouns and "travaille" is the verb.
The grammatical nature (French: la nature grammaticale) of a word is the category to which it belongs. Indeed, all the words can be grouped in the same category according to the characteristics that are similar to them.
Among them you can find
The determinant (French: le déterminant) is part of the nominal group (the subject). It agrees in gender and number with the subject. It usually places in front of the noun, sometimes separed by a qualifying adjective.
There are many types of determinants:
|Articles||le, la, les, un, une, des, du, de la, de l'|
|Possesives||mon, ton, son, notre votre, leur|
|Demonstratives||cet, cette, ces,ce|
|Indefinite||tout, aucun, chaque, certains, plusieurs|
|Interrogatives||Quel ? Quelle ? Quelles ? Quels ?|
|Exclamatives||Quel ! Quelle ! Quelles ! Quels !|
|Cardinal numbers||sept, douze, un, quatre, cinq|
Adjectives (French: les adjectifs) describe the nouns or pronouns to which they refer. They agree in gender and number with the noun or pronoun they qualify.
The French has two types of adjectifs: the attribute (l'attribut du sujet) and the epithet (l'épithète du sujet).
|L'attribut du sujet||Elle reste jolie||(She remains beautiful)|
|L'étpithète du sujet||Une fille jolie||(A beautiful girl)|
The French state verbs are: être (to be), devenir (to become), paraître, passer pour, avoir l'air, sembler (to seem), demeurer, rester (to stay).
The noun (French: le nom) is a word that agrees in gender and number usually with a determinant that inform about it. It can also be used with an epithet adjective.
|Gender and number||Noun||translations|
|Ma||grande soeur||(my big sister)|
|Common nouns||un bureau||(a desk)|
chemin de fer
It has a stem and many endings. Therefore, it conjugates according to the group, the subject, the mood and the tense.
In grammar, there are
The pronoun (French: le pronom) replace the noun. It can have all the grammatical functions of the noun.
There are many types of pronouns, in the French grammar:
|Personal||je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils, elles|
|Possessives||le mien, le tien, le sien, le nôtre, le vôtre, le leur|
|Interrogatives||lequel, duquel, auquel, laquelle, de laquelle, à laquelle|
|Demonstratives||celui, cela, celle, ceci, ce, ça|
|Relatives||qui, que, quoi, dont, où, lesquels, desquels, auxquels|
To distinguish from the possessive determinant, it is important that you write the circumflex accent in 'nôtre' 'vôtre'.
The conjunction (French; la conjonction) is an invariable word whose function is to join words, or groups of words.
There are two types of conjunction: the conjunctions of coordination (les conjonctions de coordinations) and the conjunctions of subordination (les conjonctions de subordinations), which function is to link two propositions: the principal sentence and the conjunction
|Subordinations||que, quand, comme, si, lorsque, puisque, quoique|
|Coordinations||mais, ou, est, donc, or, ni, car|
The preposition (French: la préposition) is an invariable word without a grammatical function in the sentence, but which makes it possible to join two words.
Some prepositions can also be used as an adverb like devant.
The are many types of prepositions:
|à, de, sans, pour, chez, dans,|
|entre, jusque, hors, par, vers, après, en|
The adverb (French: l'adverbe) is an invariable word. Most of them serve to clarify or modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a whole proposition.
There are many types of adverbs
tard, alors, après, après-demain, aujourd'hui, auparavant, aussitôt, autrefois, avant, avant-hier, bientôt, déjà, demain, depuis, désormais, dorénavant
|Way||calmement, doucement, rapidement, ainsi, bien, comme, debout, ensemble, exprès, mal, mieux, plutôt, vite,|
|Place||loin, ailleurs, alentour, arrière, autour, avant, contre, dedans, dehors, derrière, dessous, dessus, devant, ici, là, où, partout, près proche.|
|Quantity||beaucoup, assez, autant, beaucoup, combien, davantage, environ, guère, mais, moins, pas mal, peu, plus, presque, quelque, si, tant, tout, tout à fait, tellement, très, trop|
Grammatical functions (French: la fonction grammaticale) are the role played by words in a sentence relative to other words. The same word can have different functions according to the sentences.
Among them you can find:
|Sujet||Jeanne mange une pizza||(Joanne is eating a pizza)|
|Complement||Je vais à la pharmacie||(I am going to the pharmacy)|
|Attribut||Ils restent positifs||(They remain optimistic)|
|Epithète||Un bel homme||(A beautiful man)|
|Antécédent||Ma mère, elle est partie au marché||(My mom, she went to the market)|
|Apposition||La capitale de l'Italie, Rome accueille des réfugiés||(Italy's capital, Rome welcome refugees)|
|Apostrophe||Toi, dis nous ce que tu en penses ?||(You tell us what you think ?)|
|Explétif||Je crains qu'il ne se perde||(I am afraid he get lost)|
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