• French grammar
  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/10]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • Present tense in French [0/2]
  • Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • 13
  • Nature and function of French words

    The words (French: les mots) are classified into different categories. Every word in a sentence has a very specific role. This role is called "function"

    Example: → Mon amie travaille en France (my friend works in France)

    In this example, "amie" and "France" are nouns and "travaille" is the verb

    • "Mon amie" is undergoing the action with the verb "travailler", Its function is "subject of the verb" (sujet du verbe)
    • "En France" indicates where the action is happening. Its function is "complement of the verb" (complément du verbe) 

    Grammatical category of French words

    The grammatical nature (French: la nature grammaticale) of a word is the category to which it belongs. Indeed, all the words can be grouped in the same category according to the characteristics that are similar to them. 

    Among them you can find 

    • Determinants
    • Adjectives
    • Nouns
    • Verbs
    • Pronouns
    • Conjunctions
    • Prepositions
    • Adverbs

    French determinants

    The determinant (French: le déterminant) is part of the nominal group (the subject). It agrees in gender and number with the subject. It usually places in front of the noun, sometimes separed by a qualifying adjective. 


    • Ces belles chaussures(These beautiful shoes)
    • Mon enfant. (My child)
    • Quel bel homme ! (What a beautiful man !)

    ​There are many types of determinants: 

    Determinants Examples
    Articles le, la, les, un, une, des, du, de la, de l'
    Possesives mon, ton, son, notre votre, leur
    Demonstratives cet, cette, ces,ce
    Indefinite tout, aucun, chaque, certains, plusieurs
    Interrogatives Quel ? Quelle ? Quelles ? Quels ?
    Exclamatives Quel ! Quelle ! Quelles ! Quels !
    Cardinal numbers sept, douze, un, quatre, cinq

    French adjectives

    Adjectives (French: les adjectifs) describe the nouns or pronouns to which they refer. They agree in gender and number with the noun or pronoun they qualify.

    The French has two types of adjectifs: the attribute (l'attribut du sujet) and the epithet (l'épithète du sujet).

    • The attribute, which has direct links to the noun through a state verb (verbes d'états). 
    • The epithet, which has direct links to the noun.


    Adjectives Example Translation
    L'attribut du sujet Elle reste jolie (She remains beautiful)
    L'étpithète du sujet Une fille jolie (A beautiful girl)

    enlightenedThe French state verbs are: être (to be), devenir (to become), paraître, passer pour, avoir l'air, sembler (to seem)demeurer, rester (to stay).

    French nouns

    The noun (French: le nom) is a word that agrees in gender and number usually with a determinant that inform about it. It can also be used with an epithet adjective

    Gender and number Noun translations
    Des oiseaux (birds)
    Un homme (a man)
    Ma grande soeur (my big sister)

    Types of nouns

    • The common nouns (les noms communs), which use a tiny letter, and correspond to a concept and individuals. 
    • The proper nouns (les noms propres), which use a capital letter and has no meaning, it applies to a person, a place, an unique or collective things. 
    • The compound nouns (les noms composés), which are lexical units and operate autonomously. They can be united, a nominal phrase or separated by an hyphen (-) or an apostrophe (').
    Nouns Examples Translations
    Common nouns un bureau (a desk)
    Proper nouns France (France)
    Compound nouns


    chemin de fer





    French verbs

    The verb (French: le verbe) expresses the state of a subject or an action performed by the subject (active voice) or reflexive voice if it does the action itself or undergoes by him (passive voice).

    It has a stem and many endings. Therefore, it conjugates according to the group, the subject, the mood and the tense.

    In grammar, there are 

    • Defective verbs, which do not conjugate in all personal pronouns and all tenses. 
    • Transitive verbs, which use a direct object
    • Intransitive verbs, which do not use a direct object. 


    • Verifier le résultat (Check the answer)
    • Partir à Paris (Go to Paris)

    French pronouns

    The pronoun (French: le pronom) replace the noun. It can have all the grammatical functions of the noun


    • La femme qui m'a donné l'argent. (the woman that gave me the money)
    • Celui-là part en Grèce. (This one goes to Greece)
    • La nôtre est en vacances. (Ours is in holidays)

    There are many types of pronouns, in the French grammar: 

    Pronouns Examples
    Personal je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils, elles
    Possessives le mien, le tien, le sien, le nôtre, le vôtre, le leur
    Interrogatives lequel, duquel, auquel, laquelle, de laquelle, à laquelle
    Demonstratives celui, cela, celle, ceci, ce, ça 
    Relatives qui, que, quoi, dont, où, lesquels, desquels, auxquels

    enlightenedTo distinguish from the possessive determinant, it is important that you write the circumflex accent in 'nôtre' 'vôtre'. 

    French conjunctions

    The conjunction (French; la conjonction) is an invariable word whose function is to join words, or groups of words.

    There are two types of conjunction: the conjunctions of coordination (les conjonctions de coordinations) and the conjunctions of subordination (les conjonctions de subordinations), which function is to link two propositions: the principal sentence and the conjunction

    Conjunctions Examples
    Subordinations que, quand, comme, si, lorsque, puisque, quoique
    Coordinations mais, ou, est, donc, or, ni, car


    • Je souhaite que tu reste ici. (I wish you could stay)
    • Je voulais partir à Rome mais il n'y a pas de vol pendant cette période. (I wanted to go in Rome but there is no flight during this period)

    ​French prepositions

    The preposition (French: la préposition) is an invariable word without a grammatical function in the sentence, but which makes it possible to join two words.

    Some prepositions can also be used as an adverb like devant

    The are many types of prepositions: 

    • Those used as an complement to define the place, the way, the time, the goal, the state, the reason or the movement. 
    • Those used as a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive verb, an adverb or a group words. 
    à, de, sans, pour, chez, dans, 
    entre, jusque, hors, par, vers, après, en
    dès, devant


    • La maison à Samantha. (Samantha's house)
    • Je pars chez ma mère. (I am going at my mom's)
    • Je partirai après toi. (I will leave after you)

    ​French adverbs

    The adverb (French: l'adverbe) is an invariable word. Most of them serve to clarify or modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a whole proposition.


    • Je parle doucement. (I speak slowly)
    • Il nettoie avec tant de force(He cleans with so much strengh)
    • Ils sont rentrés très tard, hier. (They came back very late, yesterday)

    There are many types of adverbs

    Adverbs Example

     tard, alors, après, après-demain, aujourd'hui, auparavant, aussitôt, autrefois, avant, avant-hier, bientôt, déjà, demain, depuis, désormais, dorénavant

    Way calmement, doucement, rapidement, ainsi, bien, comme, debout, ensemble, exprès, mal, mieux, plutôt, vite,
    Place loin, ailleurs, alentour, arrière, autour, avant, contre, dedans, dehors, derrière, dessous, dessus, devant, ici, là, où, partout, près proche.
    Quantity beaucoup, assez, autant, beaucoup, combien, davantage, environ, guère, mais, moins, pas mal, peu, plus, presque, quelque, si, tant, tout, tout à fait, tellement, très, trop

    Grammatical function of French words

    Grammatical functions (French: la fonction grammaticale) are the role played by words in a sentence relative to other words. The same word can have different functions according to the sentences. 

    Among them you can find: 

    • The subject
    • The complement
    • The attribute
    • The epithete
    • The antecedent
    • The apposition
    • The apostrophe
    • The expletive
    Function Examples Translations
    Sujet Jeanne mange une pizza (Joanne is eating a pizza)
    Complement Je vais à la pharmacie (I am going to the pharmacy)
    Attribut Ils restent positifs (They remain optimistic)
    Epithète Un bel homme (A beautiful man)
    Antécédent Ma mère, elle est partie au marché (My mom, she went to the market)
    Apposition La capitale de l'Italie, Rome accueille des réfugiés (Italy's capital, Rome welcome refugees)
    Apostrophe Toi, dis nous ce que tu en penses ?  (You tell us what you think ?)
    Explétif Je crains qu'il ne se perde (I am afraid he get lost)


    Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words

    Multiple choice questions about the function of French words

    Next lessons

    1 The subject in French Get an overview of the subject in French
    2 The apostrophe and apposition in French Get a comprehensive overview about the apostrophe noun and study the topic online.
    3 The complement object in French Get a comprehensive overview about all the object complement and study the topic online.
    4 The circumstancial complement in French Get a comprehensive overview about all the circumstancial complements and study the topic online.
    5 The agent complement in French Get an overview of the agent complement in French