The imperative (French l'impératif) is the verbal mood which is used to express an order, an advice, a recommendation or a prohibition.
1) The imperative of 1st group of the French verbs is formed by the endings "e", "ons" and "ez" added to the stem of the verb.
2) The imperative of 2nd group of the French verbs is formed by the endings "is", "issons", "issez".
3) The imperative of 3rd group of the French verbs is formed by the endings "s", "ons", "ez".
|Regular verbs||1st group||2nd group||3rd group|
|2nd person singular||- e (marcher - marche)||- is (finir - finis)||- s (prendre - prends)|
|1st person plural||- ons (marcher - marchons)||- issons (finir - finissons)||- ons (prendre - prenons)|
|2nd person plural||- ez (marcher - marchez)||- issez (finir - finissez)||- ez (prendre - prenez)|
|Irregular verbs||Vouloir (To want)|
|2nd person singular||veuille|
|1st person plural||veuillons|
|2nd person plural||veuillez|
The imperative past is not really used but it is always good to learn it. It allows to express the anteriority of an ordered action compared to an action which is not yet realized.
It is a compound time, so it uses the auxiliary avoir or être conjugated to the imperative present + the past participle
|Verbs||1st group||2nd group||3rd group|
|2nd person singular||aie marché||aie fini||sois allé|
|1st person plural||ayons marché||ayons fini||soyons allés(e)|
|2nd person plural||ayez marché||ayez fini||soyez allés(e)|
Forming affirmative imperative of pronominal verbs the reflexive pronouns te, nous, vous become stress pronouns toi, nous, vous. They are placed after the verb with a hyphen in between.
|Infinitive||2nd person singular||1st person plural||2nd person plural|
|Se laver (To wash yourself)||Lave-toi||Lavons-nous||Lavez-vous|
|Se calmer (To calm down)||Calme-toi||Calmons-nous||Calmez-vous|
|S'habiller (To get dressed)||Habille-toi||Habillons-nous||Habillez-vous|
|Se maquiller (To put on make-up)||Maquille-toi||Maquillons-nous||Maquillez-vous|
The negative imperative is formed with the particle "ne" + form of affirmative imperative of verb + particle "pas".
The negative imperative of pronominal verbs is formed by the same way keeping the regular order of words and the reflexive pronouns te, vous, nous.
|Affirmative imperative||Negative imperative|
|Parle||Ne parle pas|
|Regardons||Ne regardons pas|
|Montez||Ne montez pas|
|Lève-toi||Ne te lève pas|
|Couchez-vous||Ne vous couchez pas|
The imperatives of être, avoir and savoir are irregular. their form are the subjunctive forms.
The imperative forms of "aller" are "va, allons, allez". Va become vas and the familiar imperative of -er verbs adds s before the pronouns y and en.
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