The second object (COS) in French
What is the second object complement in French ?
The second object complement (French: le complément d'objet second) is a complement that is preceded by a preposition. It completes the direct object complement in a sentence.
To make it simple, the COI changes its name and becomes the second object complement: COS.
|Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère||Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère||(Peter gives a gift to his brother)|
|Julia achète un foulard à sa mère||Julia achète un foulard à sa mère||(Julia buys a scarf for her mom)|
How to recognize the COS in French ?
The COS indicates who benefits or who harms the action made by the subject.
The complement is introduced by a preposition and is attached to a verb that is already built with a COD (after the latter, so it comes second)
The presence of the COD is mandatory in this type of construction, otherwise the sentence will be incorrect.
- Subject + verb + COD + COS
Roméo annonce une bonne nouvelle à sa famille. (Romeo announce a good news to his family)
- The subject is "Roméo"
- The transitive verb is "annonce"
- The direct object is "une bonne nouvelle"
- "à sa famille" is a COI because you ask the question "à qui ?"
- But it is the second complement in the sentence, therefore it becomes a COS
Papa a demandé une nouvelle voiture de service à son directeur général. (Dad asked a new service car to his CEO)
- The subject is "papa"
- The transitive verb is "a demandé"
- The COD is "une nouvelle voiture de service"
- "à son directeur" is a COI because you ask the question "à qui ?"
- But it is a second complement in the sentence, therefore it becomes the COS
The position of the COS in French
The COS can be placed in different ways in a sentence:
- After the first COD
- If the COS is a pronoun, it always stands before the verb.
- If the COD and the COS are pronouns, we look at their grammatical person: in the 3rd person → the COD is before the COS; 1st and 2nd person => the COS is before the COD
- If the verb is imperative, the COS is after the COD.
|After the COD||Papa a donné sa voiture||Papa à donné sa voiture à maman||(Dad gave his car to mom)|
|Pronoun||Papa a donné sa voiture à maman||Papa lui a donné sa voiture||(Dad gave her his car)|
Papa l'a donné à maman
La maîtresse prête un stylo à Marcel
Papa la lui a donné
La maîtresse me le prête
(Dad gave it to mom)
(The teacher lends it to me)
|Imperative||Donne lui ton sac.||Donnes-le lui.||(Give it to him)|
If the COS is usually placed after the COD, it sometimes happens to be placed before:
- Le client a commandé au vendeur une voiture. (The client ordered to the seller a car)
- Le client a commandé une voiture au vendeur. (The client ordered a car to the seller)
The grammatical category of the COS in French
As a general rule, the COS can not be deleted and it is part of the verbal group and a sentence can have two COS at the same time.
The grammatical nature of the COS can be:
- A noun
- A nominal group
- A pronoun
|Noun||Selena emprunte un bijou à sa soeur||(Selena borrows a jewel to her sister)|
|Nominal group||Pierre offre une montre au nouveau marié||(Peter offers a watch to the new bride)|
|Pronoun||Marie lui donne un dilemme||(Maria gaves him an ultimatum)|
Practise with a private teacher on Skype!
- Private Skype lessons
- Learn any topic
- Flexible appointments
German lessons and learning materials included
I teach: German, English, French
My name is Christina and I provide fun German and French language lesson for children and adult beginners or intermediate who want to... strengthen their language skills, improve the grammar knowledge, enrich the vocabulary and get into the German culture! I can teach in English or French!I had experince in teaching German, English and French to foreign people so I do have a lot of useful learning material I can provide you to make it easier! Read more
This teacher is one of our premium members. A premium teacher is very motivated to provide an excellent learning experience.
Professionnal French courses with a French native and certified teacher
I teach: French
Hello,Are you looking to learn or improve your French in a Fun and relaxed atmosphere?Look no further !My name is Anissa and I'm a French... native and certified teacher.Focusing on each student's individual level, interests, and goals, my online classes are effective to achieve impressive learning results in a shorter period of time. The courses will be based on your personal needs and during the class you will receive direct explanations, correction and feedback in order to instantly improve your language skills.Whether you want to learn French for your own pleasure or preparing for an exam, an upcoming interview or a presentation at work, I will be happy to assist you in reaching your goals.My online classes are available at any time! Choose a subject from my curriculum or request your own topic, date, time and start master your French!I look forward to meeting you,Anissa, your French (and nice) teacher :)*Please note that I'm not offering a free trial anymore* Read more
Ready to take on the challenge to learn Bulgarian?
I teach: Bulgarian, English, French
Hello,My name is Zlatko. I believe that learning Bulgarian online with me gives you the best of both worlds: fast progress and enjoyment.Taking... on the challenge to learn a new language is impressive. The reasons might be different. Some people give it a go because they just like new things. Others need to learn a new language because they are moving to a country where the language is spoken. Remember that whatever your reason is, it is your motivation that is the key to successful learning.Who am I and why to pick me up:online and face-to-face teaching experience: over 15 years helping hundreds of students achieve their language goalsflexibility: willing to tailor my techniques to both your interests and specific needspatience and excellent listening skillshonesty and collaboration: let's build trust and consider our work as a partnershipnative Bulgarian speaker with oustanding educational backgroundsence of humourIn general, my teaching style includes, but is not limited to:speaking practice through role-play activities, stotytelling and discussionsgap filling excerciseslistening comprehensionvocabulary developmentaccent reductionHow does that grab you? If interested, drop me a line and we'll discuss your language goals and expectations.Hope to see you soon.Here are a few tips on how to get the most out of every lesson:• Review what you covered in your previous lesson. Focus on things you had difficulty with. I’ll definitely go over them.• It is always a great idea to take notes during your lessons. It helps you stay more focused on what you’re learning.• Feel free to ask me if anything has come up since your last lesson that you want clarification on. Your questions do not have to be prior lesson related, maybe you are just curious about how to say something.• Be sure you have completed your homework assignments. If you were not able to complete them, make notes about what stumped you. Were the instructions not clear enough, was the vocabulary beyond your level of comprehension, were the grammar rules too overwhelming, was there too much homework for the time you had planned to spend on it, etc.• Contact me prior to your next lesson if there are any issues or changes you would like to make me aware of so I can have a chance to make changes to your learning plan.Hope this helps. Read more