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The second object complement (French: le complément d'objet second) is a complement that is preceded by a preposition. It completes the direct object complement in a sentence.
To make it simple, the COI changes its name and becomes the second object complement: COS.
|Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère||Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère||(Peter gives a gift to his brother)|
|Julia achète un foulard à sa mère||Julia achète un foulard à sa mère||(Julia buys a scarf for her mom)|
The COS indicates who benefits or who harms the action made by the subject.
The complement is introduced by a preposition and is attached to a verb that is already built with a COD (after the latter, so it comes second)
The presence of the COD is mandatory in this type of construction, otherwise the sentence will be incorrect.
Roméo annonce une bonne nouvelle à sa famille. (Romeo announce a good news to his family)
Papa a demandé une nouvelle voiture de service à son directeur général. (Dad asked a new service car to his CEO)
The COS can be placed in different ways in a sentence:
|After the COD||Papa a donné sa voiture||Papa à donné sa voiture à maman||(Dad gave his car to mom)|
|Pronoun||Papa a donné sa voiture à maman||Papa lui a donné sa voiture||(Dad gave her his car)|
Papa l'a donné à maman
La maîtresse prête un stylo à Marcel
Papa la lui a donné
La maîtresse me le prête
(Dad gave it to mom)
(The teacher lends it to me)
|Imperative||Donne lui ton sac.||Donnes-le lui.||(Give it to him)|
If the COS is usually placed after the COD, it sometimes happens to be placed before:
As a general rule, the COS can not be deleted and it is part of the verbal group and a sentence can have two COS at the same time.
The grammatical nature of the COS can be:
|Noun||Selena emprunte un bijou à sa soeur||(Selena borrows a jewel to her sister)|
|Nominal group||Pierre offre une montre au nouveau marié||(Peter offers a watch to the new bride)|
|Pronoun||Marie lui donne un dilemme||(Maria gaves him an ultimatum)|
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