The second object (COS) in French
- 1.What is the second object complement in French ?
- 2.How to recognize the COS in French ?
- 3.The position of the COS in French
- 4.The grammatical category of the COS in French
- 5.1.Fill in the blank exercise about second object pronouns in French
- 5.2.Drag and Drop exercise about the COS in French
What is the second object complement in French ?
The second object complement (French: le complément d'objet second) is a complement that is preceded by a preposition. It completes the direct object complement in a sentence.
To make it simple, the COI changes its name and becomes the second object complement: COS.
|Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère||Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère||(Peter gives a gift to his brother)|
|Julia achète un foulard à sa mère||Julia achète un foulard à sa mère||(Julia buys a scarf for her mom)|
How to recognize the COS in French ?
The COS indicates who benefits or who harms the action made by the subject.
The complement is introduced by a preposition and is attached to a verb that is already built with a COD (after the latter, so it comes second)
The presence of the COD is mandatory in this type of construction, otherwise the sentence will be incorrect.
- Subject + verb + COD + COS
Roméo annonce une bonne nouvelle à sa famille. (Romeo announce a good news to his family)
- The subject is "Roméo"
- The transitive verb is "annonce"
- The direct object is "une bonne nouvelle"
- "à sa famille" is a COI because you ask the question "à qui ?"
- But it is the second complement in the sentence, therefore it becomes a COS
Papa a demandé une nouvelle voiture de service à son directeur général. (Dad asked a new service car to his CEO)
- The subject is "papa"
- The transitive verb is "a demandé"
- The COD is "une nouvelle voiture de service"
- "à son directeur" is a COI because you ask the question "à qui ?"
- But it is a second complement in the sentence, therefore it becomes the COS
The position of the COS in French
The COS can be placed in different ways in a sentence:
- After the first COD
- If the COS is a pronoun, it always stands before the verb.
- If the COD and the COS are pronouns, we look at their grammatical person: in the 3rd person → the COD is before the COS; 1st and 2nd person => the COS is before the COD
- If the verb is imperative, the COS is after the COD.
|After the COD||Papa a donné sa voiture||Papa à donné sa voiture à maman||(Dad gave his car to mom)|
|Pronoun||Papa a donné sa voiture à maman||Papa lui a donné sa voiture||(Dad gave her his car)|
Papa l'a donné à maman
La maîtresse prête un stylo à Marcel
Papa la lui a donné
La maîtresse me le prête
(Dad gave it to mom)
(The teacher lends it to me)
|Imperative||Donne lui ton sac.||Donnes-le lui.||(Give it to him)|
If the COS is usually placed after the COD, it sometimes happens to be placed before:
- Le client a commandé au vendeur une voiture. (The client ordered to the seller a car)
- Le client a commandé une voiture au vendeur. (The client ordered a car to the seller)
The grammatical category of the COS in French
As a general rule, the COS can not be deleted and it is part of the verbal group and a sentence can have two COS at the same time.
The grammatical nature of the COS can be:
- A noun
- A nominal group
- A pronoun
|Noun||Selena emprunte un bijou à sa soeur||(Selena borrows a jewel to her sister)|
|Nominal group||Pierre offre une montre au nouveau marié||(Peter offers a watch to the new bride)|
|Pronoun||Marie lui donne un dilemme||(Maria gaves him an ultimatum)|
- Fill in the blank exercise about second object pronouns in French
- Drag and Drop exercise about the COS in French
Fill in the blank exercise about second object pronouns in French
Drag and Drop exercise about the COS in French
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Elena is an excellent teacher and a very nice person. I have been training in Spanish with Elena for quite some time now after her being recommended to me by a friend, and have consistently been very pleased with our lessons. While I do not consider myself to be very good at learning foreign languages, Elena is very patient and adapts the lessons to my ability, making me feel at ease. In fact, I find her to be extremely skilled at assessing exactly where I am at any given time with respect to my individual learning situation, and structuring the lessons accordingly. I think I probably would have given up trying to learn Spanish had I not began my study with Elena; and that would have been a shame considering where I am now with the language. Because of Elena's skilled help, I am extremely pleased to not only be conversant in basic Spanish, but also have confidence that I will one day reach full proficiency with the language. No other learning method I tried before meeting Elena compares to the one-on-one, personalized instruction I receive from her, which comprises reading; writing; developmental exercises; and most importantly, conversation. To be able to look at Spanish now and have it appear largely familiar is extremely satisfying. I even plan to study Italian with Elena after reaching my desired level in Spanish. These are not things I ever imagined would occur at the beginning stages of my studies. I am a native English speaker and find Elena's English to be excellent. She had no difficulty instructing me from the very beginning levels where it was necessary that a lot of English be spoken in our lessons, to where we are now with much less English being spoken. The friend who recommended Elena to me learned Dutch from her, and is equally pleased with their experience. I would not hesitate to learn from Elena any of the languages she teaches. I give Elena my highest recommendations and thank her for all the help she has provided me.
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We are an Italian family residing in France for 3 months, we have two 10 year old children who have just started attending CM1. We asked Natalia to give the children two lessons a week to speed up their learning. We are super happy with the choice. Nous sommes une famille italienne résidant en France depuis janvier, nous avons deux enfants de 10 ans qui viennent de commencer la CM1. Nous avons demandé à Natalia de leur donner deux leçons par semaine pour accélérer leur apprentissage. Nous sommes super contents de Natalia. We are an Italian family living in France since 3 months, we have two 10 year old children who have just started attending CM1. We asked Natalia to give the kids two lessons a week to speed up their learning. We are super happy with this choice.
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