• French grammar
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  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)Free
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • Drag and drop exercise about the adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blank exercise about the regular form of the adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blank exercise about the irregular adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Adverbs of place in French [0/2]
  • 8.2 Adverbs of time in French [0/2]
  • 8.3 Adverbs of manner in French [0/2]
  • 8.4 Adverbs of quantity in French [0/2]
  • 8.5 Adverbs of reason in French [0/2]
  • 8.6 Placement of adverbs in French [0/2]
  • 8.7 Comparative of French adverbs [0/2]
  • 8.8 Difference adjectives and adverbs in French [0/1]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/11]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • 10.1.1.1 Present tense in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.1.2 Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • 10.1.1.3 Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • What is the second object complement in French ? 

    The second object complement (French: le complément d'objet second) is a complement that is preceded by a preposition. It completes the direct object complement in a sentence.

    To make it simple, the COI changes its name and becomes the second object complement: COS.

    Examples:

    COD COS Translations
    Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère Pierre donne un cadeau à son frère (Peter gives a gift to his brother)
    Julia achète un foulard à sa mère Julia achète un foulard à sa mère (Julia buys a scarf for her mom)

    How to recognize the COS in French ? 

    The COS indicates who benefits or who harms the action made by the subject.

    The complement is introduced by a preposition and is attached to a verb that is already built with a COD (after the latter, so it comes second)

    The presence of the COD is mandatory in this type of construction, otherwise the sentence will be incorrect.

    • Subject + verb + COD + COS

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    Examples

    Roméo annonce une bonne nouvelle à sa famille. (Romeo announce a good news to his family)

    • The subject is "Roméo"
    • The transitive verb is "annonce"
    • The direct object is "une bonne nouvelle"
    • "à sa famille" is a COI because you ask the question "à qui ?" 
    • But it is the second complement in the sentence, therefore it becomes a COS

    Papa a demandé une nouvelle voiture de service à son directeur général. (Dad asked a new service car to his CEO)

    • The subject is "papa"
    • The transitive verb is "a demandé"
    • The COD is "une nouvelle voiture de service"
    • "à son directeur" is a COI because you ask the question "à qui ?"
    • But it is a second complement in the sentence, therefore it becomes the COS

    The position of the COS in French 

    The COS can be placed in different ways in a sentence:

    • After the first COD
    • If the COS is a pronoun, it always stands before the verb.
    • If the COD and the COS are pronouns, we look at their grammatical person: in the 3rd person → the COD is before the COS; 1st and 2nd person => the COS is before the COD
    • If the verb is imperative, the COS is after the COD.

    Examples

    Position COD COS Examples
    After the COD Papa a donné sa voiture Papa à donné sa voiture à maman (Dad gave his car to mom)
    Pronoun Papa a donné sa voiture à maman  Papa lui a donné sa voiture (Dad gave her his car)
    Pronouns

    Papa l'a donné à maman

    La maîtresse prête un stylo à Marcel

    Papa la lui a donné 

    La maîtresse me le prête

    (Dad gave it to mom)

    (The teacher lends it to me)

    Imperative Donne lui ton sac Donnes-le lui (Give it to him)

    enlightenedIf the COS is usually placed after the COD, it sometimes happens to be placed before:

    • Le client a commandé au vendeur une voiture. (The client ordered to the seller a car)
    • Le client a commandé une voiture au vendeur. (The client ordered a car to the seller)

    ​The grammatical category of the COS in French

    As a general rule, the COS can not be deleted and it is part of the verbal group and a sentence can have two COS at the same time. 

    The grammatical nature of the COS can be: 

    • A noun 
    • A nominal group 
    • A pronoun

    Examples:

    Nature COS Translations
    Noun Selena emprunte un bijou à sa soeur (Selena borrows a jewel to her sister)
    Nominal group Pierre offre une montre au nouveau marié (Peter offers a watch to the new bride)
    Pronoun Marie lui donne un dilemme (Maria gaves him an ultimatum)