• French grammar
  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/10]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • Present tense in French [0/2]
  • Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • 13
  • The apostrophe and apposition in French

    The apostrophe (French: l'apostrophe) can reference to the punctuaction (') but here it is a noun or pronoun that is not related to the rest of the sentence. It is used to interpellate the person we are talking to.

    The apostrophe as a punctuaction in French 

    The apostrophe (') is a sign that replaces one of the vowels (a, e, i, o) when the next word itself begins with a vowel or a mute h.


    You cannot say

    • le animal 
    • le auto
    • je écoute
    • si il vient 
    • lorsque on
    • le histoire
    Vowels Examples Translation
    a l'animal (the animal)
    e j'écoute (I listen)
    i s'il vient (If he comes)
    o lorsqu'on (When we)
    h l'histoire (the story)

    The apostrophe as a noun in French

    The word put in apostrophe, noun or pronoun, designates the animated being or the personified thing to whom someone speaks. It is an independent word, without function in the sentence.

    It can be: 

    • a person 
    • a thing
    • an object
    Examples Translation
    John, où est ce que tu vas ?  (John, where are you going ?) 
    Maman, fais moi confiance.  (You can trust me, mom)
    Et toi, est ce que tu vas voter pour lui ? (What about you, are you going to vote for him ?)

    The apposition in French

    The apposition (French: l'apposition) is a nominal noun or group that refers to another noun hat it follows or directly precedes. It can be a noun placed directly after the noun, like an  epithet adjective or separated by a comma (,). 

    It is most often a noun joined to another that designates the same being, to know a quality. It can also be

    • a pronoun,
    • an infinitive
    • a relative proposition
    Apposition Examples Translatios
    Noun or nominal group Elle porte une robe de princesse (She is wearing a princess dress)
    pronoun Ma fille, elle même, viendra te l'apporter (My own daughter will bring it for you)
    infinitive Autre chose, apporter une couverture quand on va à la montagne en hiver (One more thing, bring a blanket if we go the mountains)
    relative proposition Mon frère, qui est un garçon très intelligent, a pourtant échoué.  (My brother who is a smart boy, managed to fail)

    Apposition vs. Apostrophe in French

    It is necessary that you distinguish an apostrophe to an apposition sentence. The apostrophe calls out a person and is an independant word instead of the apposition which is a nominal element placed in the dependence of another nominal element.

    The apostrophe can be like the imperative because it interpellates something or someone. Therefore, it is used in the direct speech (style) and cannot be in the indirect speech. 

    To differenciate the both nouns, you can put the apostrophe in the indirect speech, then you will notice that the word in apostrophe comes out of the quotation. It cannnot be preserved in the indirect speech.


    Direct style Indirect style Translations
    Toi, chante nous quelque chose !  Il lui a dit de nous chanter quelque chose (He told him to sing them something)
    Amis, buvons à la santé de notre frère ! Il a dit à ses amis de boire à la santé de leur frère (He told his friends to drink in favor of their brother)
    William de Cambridge est le deuxième héritier de la monarchie anglaise Il a dit que William de Cambridge est le deuxième héritier de la monarchie anglaise (William of Cambridge is the second heir to the throne of England)



    Fill in the blank exercice about the apostrophe in French

    Multiple choice questions about the apposition in French