The apostrophe and apposition in French
The apostrophe (French: l'apostrophe) can reference to the punctuaction (') but here it is a noun or pronoun that is not related to the rest of the sentence. It is used to interpellate the person we are talking to.
The apostrophe as a punctuaction in French
The apostrophe (') is a sign that replaces one of the vowels (a, e, i, o) when the next word itself begins with a vowel or a mute h.
You cannot say
- le animal
- le auto
- je écoute
- si il vient
- lorsque on
- le histoire
|i||s'il vient||(If he comes)|
The apostrophe as a noun in French
The word put in apostrophe, noun or pronoun, designates the animated being or the personified thing to whom someone speaks. It is an independent word, without function in the sentence.
It can be:
- a person
- a thing
- an object
|John, où est ce que tu vas ?||(John, where are you going ?)|
|Maman, fais moi confiance.||(You can trust me, mom)|
|Et toi, est ce que tu vas voter pour lui ?||(What about you, are you going to vote for him ?)|
The apposition in French
The apposition (French: l'apposition) is a nominal noun or group that refers to another noun hat it follows or directly precedes. It can be a noun placed directly after the noun, like an epithet adjective or separated by a comma (,).
It is most often a noun joined to another that designates the same being, to know a quality. It can also be
- a pronoun,
- an infinitive
- a relative proposition
|Noun or nominal group||Elle porte une robe de princesse||(She is wearing a princess dress)|
|pronoun||Ma fille, elle même, viendra te l'apporter||(My own daughter will bring it for you)|
|infinitive||Autre chose, apporter une couverture quand on va à la montagne en hiver||(One more thing, bring a blanket if we go the mountains)|
|relative proposition||Mon frère, qui est un garçon très intelligent, a pourtant échoué.||(My brother who is a smart boy, managed to fail)|
Apposition vs. Apostrophe in French
It is necessary that you distinguish an apostrophe to an apposition sentence. The apostrophe calls out a person and is an independant word instead of the apposition which is a nominal element placed in the dependence of another nominal element.
The apostrophe can be like the imperative because it interpellates something or someone. Therefore, it is used in the direct speech (style) and cannot be in the indirect speech.
To differenciate the both nouns, you can put the apostrophe in the indirect speech, then you will notice that the word in apostrophe comes out of the quotation. It cannnot be preserved in the indirect speech.
|Direct style||Indirect style||Translations|
|Toi, chante nous quelque chose !||Il lui a dit de nous chanter quelque chose||(He told him to sing them something)|
|Amis, buvons à la santé de notre frère !||Il a dit à ses amis de boire à la santé de leur frère||(He told his friends to drink in favor of their brother)|
|William de Cambridge est le deuxième héritier de la monarchie anglaise||Il a dit que William de Cambridge est le deuxième héritier de la monarchie anglaise||(William of Cambridge is the second heir to the throne of England)|
Practise with a private teacher on Skype!
- Private Skype lessons
- Learn any topic
- Flexible appointments
German lessons and learning materials included
I teach: English, French, German
My name is Christina and I provide fun German and French language lesson for children and adult beginners or intermediate who want to... strengthen their language skills, improve the grammar knowledge, enrich the vocabulary and get into the German culture! I can teach in English or French!I had experince in teaching German, English and French to foreign people so I do have a lot of useful learning material I can provide you to make it easier! Read more
This teacher is one of our premium members. A premium teacher is very motivated to provide an excellent learning experience.
Group lessons possible
Ready to take on the challenge to learn Bulgarian?
I teach: Bulgarian, English, French
Hello, My name is Zlatko. I believe that learning Bulgarian online with me gives you the best of both worlds: fast progress and enjoyment.Taking... on the challenge to learn a new language is impressive. The reasons might be different. Some people give it a go because they just like new things. Others need to learn a new language because they are moving to a country where the language is spoken. Remember that whatever your reason is, it is your motivation that is the key to successful learning. Who am I and why to pick me out: - online and face-to-face teaching experience: over 15 years helping hundreds of students achieve their language goals - flexibility: willing to tailor my techniques to both your interests and specific needs - patience and excellent listening skills - honesty and collaboration: let's build trust and consider our work as a partnership - native Bulgarian speaker with oustanding educational background - sence of humour In general, my teaching style includes, but is not limited to: - speaking practice through role-play activities - stotytelling and discussions - gap filling excercises - listening comprehension - vocabulary development - accent reduction How does that grab you? If interested, drop me a line and we will discuss your language goals and expectations. Hope to see you soon. Here are a few tips on how to get the most out of every lesson: 1. Review what you covered in your previous lesson. 2. Focus on things you had difficulty with. I will definitely go over them. 3. It is always a great idea to take notes during your lessons. It helps you stay more focused on what you are learning. 4. Feel free to ask me if anything has come up since your last lesson that you want clarification on. Your questions do not have to be prior lesson related, maybe you are just curious about how to say something. 5. Be sure you have completed your homework assignments. If you were not able to complete them, make notes about what stumped you. Were the instructions not clear enough, was the vocabulary beyond your level of comprehension, were the grammar rules too overwhelming, was there too much homework for the time you had planned to spend on it, and so on. 6. Contact me prior to your next lesson if there are any issues or changes you would like to make me aware of so I can have a chance to make changes to your learning plan. Hope this helps. Read more
Group lessons possible
Professionnal French courses with a French native and certified teacher
I teach: French
Hello,Are you looking to learn or improve your French in a Fun and relaxed atmosphere?Look no further !My name is Anissa and I'm a French... native and certified teacher.Focusing on each student's individual level, interests, and goals, my online classes are effective to achieve impressive learning results in a shorter period of time. The courses will be based on your personal needs and during the class you will receive direct explanations, correction and feedback in order to instantly improve your language skills.Whether you want to learn French for your own pleasure or preparing for an exam, an upcoming interview or a presentation at work, I will be happy to assist you in reaching your goals.My online classes are available at any time! Choose a subject from my curriculum or request your own topic, date, time and start master your French!I look forward to meeting you,Anissa, your French (and nice) teacher :)*Please note that I'm not offering a free trial anymore* Read more
Group lessons possible