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French verbs ending in -er

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The regular verbs that end in -er are the 1st group verbs in French (except the verbs: aller). 
There are different endings in -er:

  • -er
  • -cer
  • -e+consonant+er
  • -é+consonant+er
  • -ger
  • -éger
  •  -eler or -eter 
  • -éer
  • -ier
  • -ayer 
  • -oyer or -uyer

Conjugation of -er verbs in French 

As a general rule, you must remove the ending -er to obtain the radical of the verbs and then add the following endings. The future simple uses the infinitive + endings.

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aimer (to like) 

présentimparfaitpassé simplefutur simple
tu aimestu aimaistu aimastu aimeras 
il/elle/on aimeil/elle/on aimaitil/elle/on aimatil/elle/on aimera
nous aimonsnous aimionsnous aimâmesnous aimerons 
vous aimezvous aimiezvous aimâtesvous aimerez
ils/elles aimentils/elles aimaientils/elles aimèrentils/elles aimeront
passé composé plus-que-parfaitpassé antérieurfutur antérieur
j'ai aiméj'avais aiméj'eus aiméj'aurai aimé
tu as aimétu avais aimétu eustu auras aimé
il/elle/on a aimé il/elle/on avait aiméil/elle/on eut aiméil/elle/on aura aimé
nous avons aiménous avions aiménous eûmes aiménous aurons aimé
vous avez aimé vous aviez aimévous eûtes aimévous aurez aimé
ils/elles ont aiméils/elles avaient aiméils/elles eurent aiméils/elles auront aimé

enlightenedThe transitive verbs of the 1st group form the compound times with the auxiliary avoir. However, some active verbs with an intransitive meaning form their compound times with the auxiliary être.

Grammar rule of -er verbs in French

Verbs ending in -cer

In the case of regular verbs ending in -cer, you replace the c with ç for the 1st plural pronoun of the present. You also use it for the imperfect tense, the past simple, the subjunctive imperfect and the participle present in order to keep the original sound of the infinitive

Example: commencer (to begin)

1st plural pronoun of the presentnous commençons
imperfecttu commençais
past simpletu commença
subjunctive imperfectque tu commençasses
participle presenten commençant

Verbs ending in -ger

In the case of regular verbs ending in -ger you add an e before the present ending -ons, the imperfect (except the 1st and 2nd plural pronoun), the past simple, the subjunctive imperfect and the participle in order to keep the original sound of the infinitive.

Example: manger (to eat) 

1st plural pronounnous mangeons
imperfectils mangeaient
past simpleil mangea
subjunctive imperfectje mangeasse
participle presentmangeant 

Verbs ending in -e + consonant + er

Regular verbs that end in -e + consonant + er and most of those who end up in -é + consonant + er have the particularity to change the penultimate é or e by è when the ending is mute (that is to say the following endings: e, es and ent). You can also use it with the future simple, the conditional and the subjunctive. 

tensespréférer (to prefer)acheter (to buy)
presentil préfèreil achète
future simpleil préfèrerail achètera
conditional presentil préfèreraitil achèterait
subjunctive présentqu'il préfèrequ'il achète

Verbs ending in -eter or -eler

Most verbs ending in -eter or -eler do not change the e by è, but rather double the consonant into tt or ll when the ending e is mute. You use it with the present (1st, 2nd and 3rd singular pronoun), the future simple and the conditional. the subjunctive uses the 1st, 2st, 3rd singular pronoun

tensesjeter (to throw)appeler (to call)
presentje jettej'appell
future simpletu jetterastu appelleras
conditional presentnous jetterionsnous appellerions
subjunctive que vous jetiezque vous appeliez

Verbs ending in -oyer and -uyer

Regular verbs in -oyer and -uyer have the particularity to change the y by i in front of the mute syllable. You use it in the present tense (1st, 2nd, 3rd singular pronoun and 3rd plural), the future simple and the conditional.

tensesnettoyer (to clean)ennuyer (to bother)
presentje nettoiej'ennuie
future simpleje nettoieraij'ennuierai
conditional presentnous nettoierionsnous ennuierions

Verbs ending in -ayer

Regular verbs ending in -ayer have the distinction to be conjugated in two different ways. They can be conjugated as in the previous case, by changing the y by i before the mute syllable or can be conjugated by keeping the y. used with the same tenses, as the previous case. 

tensespayer (to pay)
presentil paye/il paie
future simpletu payeras/tu paieras
conditional presentje payerais/je paierais

enlightenedCheck out the list of verbs in -er and exercice online


  1. Quiz about the conjugation of -er verbs in French
  2. Fill in the blank exercise for the regular verbs ending in -cer in French
  3. Fill in the blank exercise for the regular verb of -e + consonant + er in French
  4. Fill in the blank exercise for the regular verbs in -oyer, -ayer, -uyer in French

Quiz about the conjugation of -er verbs in French

Fill in the blank exercise for the regular verbs ending in -cer in French

Fill in the blank exercise for the regular verb of -e + consonant + er in French

Fill in the blank exercise for the regular verbs in -oyer, -ayer, -uyer in French

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