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Every adjective has to agree in number and gender with the noun it modifies. To make an adjective agree with the noun or pronoun it describes, you simply add the following endings in most cases:
|with masculine noun||with feminine noun|
|Singular||un chat noir||une chemise noire|
|Plural||des chats noirs||des chemises noires|
With most adjectives you add an -e to the masculine singular form to make it feminine.
un sac lourd (a heavy bag) → une valise lourde (a heavy suitcase)
If the adjective already ends in an -e in the masculine form, you do not add another -e.
un sac jaune (a yellow bag) → une chemise jaune (a yellow shirt)
|Masculine ending||Feminine ending||Example||Meaning|
|-f||-ve||neuf → neuve||new|
|-x||-se||heureux → heureuse||happy|
|-er||-ère||cher → chère||dear, expensive|
paysan → paysanne
européen → européenne
bon → bonne
|-el||-elle||cruel → cruelle||cruel|
|-eil||-eille||pareil → pareille||similar|
net → nette
complet → complète
Please note that if a masculine adjective ends in a vowel its pronunciation does not change when an -e is added to form the feminine.
Some very common adjectives are completely irregular in the feminine form:
The adjectives beau, nouveau, vieux, fou and mou have three unique forms. They have a special masculine singular form before words beginning with a vowel or silent h.
|Masculine before a consonant||Masculine before a vowel||Feminine||Meaning|
With most adjectives you add an -s to the masculine singular or feminine singular form to form the plural.
|Singular||Le garçon est grand.||La fille est petite.|
|Plural||Les garçons sont grands.||Les filles sont petites.|
When an adjective describes a masculine and a feminine noun or pronoun, use the masculine plural form of the adjective.
Adjectives ending in -s or -x are the same in the masculine singular and plural forms. The feminine plural stays regular.
|Singular||un garçon heureux||une pièce merveilleuse|
|Plural||des garçons heureux||des pièces merveilleuses|
Adjectives ending in -eu or -eau add -x to build the masculine form of the plural. The feminine plural stays regular.
|Singular||le nouveau professeur||la belle peinture|
|Plural||les nouveaux professeurs||les belles peintures|
Please note that there is an exception when it comes to the word bleu. In the plural it's transformed to bleus.
Adjectives ending in -al change to -aux to form the masculine plural. The feminine plural stays regular.
|Singular||L'ami est loyal.||La loi est légale.|
|Plural||Les amis sont loyaux.||Les lois sont légales.|
Please note that there are exceptions when it comes to the words banal, fatal, final, natal and naval. You have to add an -s to form the plural form of these words.
A small number of adjectives (mostly relating to colours) do not change in the feminine or plural. They are called invariable adjectives because their form NEVER changes, no matter what they are describing.
These adjectives are often made up of more than one word - for example, bleu marine (navy blue), or come from the names of fruit or nuts.
|Invariable color adjectives||Meaning|
|bleu foncé||dark blue|
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