• French grammar
  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/10]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • Present tense in French [0/2]
  • Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • 13
  • French pronunciation and phonetics

    How to pronounce the French vowels, consonants and diphthongs ? 

    In French, unlike other languages, we don't take in account all the accent in our alphabet. 

    For alphabetical classification, the accents are under their normal letters ("é" counted as "e" or  "æ" and "œ" ligatures are the equivalents of "ae" and "oe".)

    The accents are arranged in this order: acute, grave, circumflex and umlaut

    The vowels are 6 letters and the consonants are 20 letters: Here's is an overview of their pronunciation and phonetics in the alphabetical order

    French vowels charts 

    Order Letter Pronunciation
    1 A / a /ɑ/
    5 E / e /ə/
    9 I / i  /i/
    15 O / o /o/
    21 U / u  /y/
    25 Y / y  /igʁɛk/

    French consonants charts 

    Order Letter Pronunciation
    2 B / b  /be/
    3 C / c /se/
    4 D / d  /de/
    6 F / f /ɛf/
    7 G / g /ʒe/
    8 H / h /aʃ/
    10 J / j /ʒi/
    11 K / k /kɑ/
    12 L / l /ɛl/
    13 M / m /ɛm/
    14 N / n /ɛn/
    16 P / p /pe/
    17 Q / q /ky/
    18 R / r /ɛʁ/
    19 S / s /ɛs/
    20 T / t /te/
    22 V / v /ve/
    23 W / w /dublə ve/
    24 X / x /iks/
    26 Z / z /zɛd/

    Diphthongs charts 

    The French alphabet has many diphthongs. Diphthongs are vowels that were created by the combination of two vowel sounds with the same syllable but can also be a combination of a vowel and a consonant. They are very commonly used. 

    Among them you can find: 

    Diphthongs Pronunciation Examples
    ch  /ʃ/,  /k/ chocolat, archéologue
    ph /f/ photo
    ss /s/ between two voyels chasse
    gu /g/ guépard, guenon
    ou /u/ ou
    ge /ʒ/ pigeon
    oi /wa/ loi
    eau /o/ eau, fardeau
    ai, aî, ei /ɛ/ mtre, 
    em, en /ɑ̃/ enveloppe, emballage
    ein, im, in, în /ɛ̃/ rein, imconcevable, incroyable, vînmes
    aim, ain /ɛ̃/ faim, main
    am, an /ɑ̃/ chambre, chanter

    /ɛ.i/ in front of consonants

    /ɛj/ in front of vowels

    ayant, pays
    eu /ø/ jeune
    gn /ɲ/ gagner


    • "ge" is used in front a, o, u
    • "gu" is used in front of e, i, y
    • "ein", "in" and "en", 'am' and "ain" are used in front of all consonants except m, b, p
    • "aim" is used in front of m, b, p

    Pronunciation rules of the French language

    Vowels with no accent 

    We already know what are the French vowels sound like. They may be not accented, accented or even combined with other vowels. Here is a table with pronunciations for unaccented vowels alone:

    Vowels Pronunciation Examples
    a /a/ chat, sac, bagage, matin
    e /ə/ genou, cheval, retard
    er, et /e/ manger, acheter, et
    i, y /i/ lit, physique
    o /o/ homme, vélo
    u /y/ jus, tissu

    Vowels with accent

    French grammar can take 3 kind of accents: grave, acute, circumflex and they usually change the pronunciation of the words. But the only vowel for which these three accents have a noticeable effect on its pronunciation is the e.

    Accent Pronunciation Examples
    é /e/ enchanté, énormement, étonné
    è /ɛ/ très, probme, frère
    ê /ɛ/ (more open) être, fête, même

    Combined vowels

    Vowels can also merge to form vowel combinations. There are only a few possible combinations in French but also as soon as a vowel precedes an n or an m in the same syllable, this vowel becomes nasal.

    We already studied some of them in the list of diphthongs above but check under for more pronunciations: 

    Vowels Pronunciation Examples
    au /o/ journaux,
    œu /œ/ sœur, œuf
    ui/oui /ɥ/ nuit, suis, puits
    on /õ/ maison, bouton, marron
    un /œ̃/ lundi, quelqu'un

    Phonetics of consonants

    In general, all consonants at the end of a word are silent and not spoken. 

    • sport 
    • chanter
    • trois

    The consonant H is silent when used in a word and has no pronunciation

    • hôtel
    • hache
    • aujourd'hui

    The consonant Y is pronounced /i/ when used as a vowel in a word and /j/ when used as a semi-vowel in a word

    • yaourt 
    • cycle
    • cobaye
    • yatch

    enlightenedWhen two vowels are separated by "ll" the pronunciation is /j/. 

    • fille
    • abeille

    ​The linking in French

    The pronunciation of a word in French varies depending on the words that precede or follow it. The pronunciation of consonants that are normally not pronounced before a following vowel is called linking (French: la liaison). Liaison links the two words

    • with the sound /z/ (ex: des_amis)
    • with the sound /n/ (ex: un_américain)
    • sometimes with the sound /t/ (ex: comment_allez vous ?)

    The result of liaison is a regular alternation of consonant and a vowel sound. 

    ​The cedilla in French 

    The cedilla is a graphic sign that is placed under the c to indicate that it must pronounce /s/.

    It is necessary before a, o, u and without the cedilla in front, it is pronounced /k/.

    It is useless to put a cedilla before an e or i:

    • c before these vowels is always pronounced /s/.
    Vowels Examples Translations
    a Remplaçant (A substitute)
    o Maçon (A builder)
    u çu (Disappointed)
    e Cependant (However)
    i Merci (Thank you)


    True or false exercise about vowels in French

    True or false exercise about the diphtongs in French

    True or false exercise about the consonants in French

    Fill in the blank exercise about the cedilla ç in French

    Next lessons

    1 French accents (a, e, o, u, i) French pronunciation from A to Z!