The circumstancial complement in French
- 1.What is the CC in French ?
- 2.The circumstantial complement of time in French
- 3.The circumstantial complement of place in French
- 4.The circumstantial complement of way in French
- 5.The circumstantial complement of purpose in French
- 6.The circumstantial complement of consequence in French
- 7.The circumstantial complement of means
- 8.The position of a CC in French
- 9.The grammatical category of a CC
What is the CC in French ?
The circumstantial complements (French: les compléments circonstanciels) are words or group of words and indicate in which circumstance the action takes place: at what time, in what place, in what way, for what purpose, for what cause, with what or by what?
It completes the verb and can be deleted or moved.
There are many categories of circumstantial complements:
- The circumstantial complement of time
- The circumstantial complement of place.
- The circumstantial complement of way.
- The circumstantial complement of purpose
- The circumstantial complement of consequence
- The circumstantial complement of means.
The circumstantial complement of time in French
The circumstantial complément of time (French: le complément circonstanciel de temps) is abbreviated CCT and makes the understanding more precise
- situate an action at a specific moment
- indicate the duration of an action
- express the repetition of an action
To find the CCT, you most often ask these questions after the verb or the complement:
- Quand ? (When ?)
- Pendant combien de temps ? (How long ?)
|Je rentre demain matin.||Je rentre quand ?||(I am leaving tomorrow morning)|
|Pendant deux ans, j'ai vécu en Italie||J'ai vécu en Italie, pendant combien de temps ?||(I had lived in Italy for two years)|
|Les enfants partiront à l'école quand tu seras là||Les enfants partiront à l'école quand ?||(The kids will leave for school when you'll be here)|
The circumstantial complement of place in French
The circumstantial complement of place (French; le complément circonstanciel de lieu) is abbreaviated CCL and indicates where the action happens.
To find the CCL, it is most often to ask the question after the verb and the complement.
- Où ? (Where ?)
|En France, je suis très célèbre||Je suis très célèbre où ?||(In France, I'm very famous)|
|Samantha a dû partir chez sa mère||Samantha a dû partir où ?||(Samantha had to leave her mom's)|
|Pierre est venu me voir à l'école||Pierre est venu me voir où ?||(Peter came to see me at school)|
The circumstantial complement of way in French
The circumstantial complement of way (French: le complément circonstanciel de manière) is abbreviated CCM and indicates how the action takes place.
To find the CCM, it is necessary that you ask these questions after the verb and the complement.
- Comment ? (How ?)
- De quel facon ? (How ?)
- De quelle manière ? (How ?)
|Il mange au restaurant en criant||Il mange au restaurant comment ?||(He eats at the restaurant by yelling)|
|Les enfants jouent bruyamment||De quelle manière joue les enfants ?||(The children play loud)|
|Nous attendons la série avec impatience||Nous attendons la série comment ?||(We are waiting for the show eagerly)|
The circumstantial complement of purpose in French
The circumstantial complement of purpose (French: le complément circonstanciel de but) is abbreviated CCB and expresses the objective that someone intentionally wishes to achieve or, on the contrary, avoid.
To find the CC de but, is it necessary that you ask these question after the verb or the complement:
- Pourquoi ? (Why ?)
- Dans quel but ? (For what ?)
- En vue de quoi ? (For what ?)
|CC de but||Questions||Translations|
|Marie révise sa leçon parce qu'elle veut avoir une bonne note||Marie révise sa leçon pourquoi ?||(Marie is revising her lesson because she want to have a good mark)|
|Je viendrai plus tard pour le discours de ton père||Je viendrai plus tard dans quel but ?||(I will come later for your dad's speech)|
|Il s'entraîne chaque jour afin de devenir le meilleur||Il s'entraine chaque jour en vue de quoi ?||(He practise every day to become the best)|
The CC de but is usually introduced by prepositions like: pour, en vue de, afin de, dans l’intention de and many others.
The circumstantial complement of consequence in French
The circumstantial complement of cause (French: le complément circonstanciel de conséquence) is abbreviated CCC and expresses the result of an action.
This complement is used as the result of the cause which is also a circumstancial complement that indicates what happens first.
To find the CCC, it is necessary that you ask these questions after the verb and the complement:
- Avec quel résultat ? (What results ?)
- De manière à obtenir quel résultat ? (In order to get what ?)
- Pour quel résultat ? (For what ?)
|CC de cause||CC de conséquence||Questions||Translations|
|Ils étaient trop malades pour aller à l'école||Ils étaient trop malades pour aller l'école||Ils étaient trop malades avec quel résultat ?||(They were so sick to go to school)|
|Ta soeur a couru au point d'avoir fait tomber son téléphone||Ta soeur a couru au point d'avoir fait tomber son téléphone||Ta soeur a couru de manière à obtenir quel résultat ?||(Your sister ran to the point of dropping her phone)|
|Je préfère dire la vérité à en perdre mon travail||Je préfère dire la vérité à en perde mon travail||Je préfère dire la vérité pour quel résultat ?||(I prefer to tell the truth even if I lose my job)|
The circumstantial complement of means
The circumstantial complement of means (French: le complément circonstanciel de moyen) is abbreviated CC de moyen to avoid the same abbreciation as the CCM. It indicates the tool, the utensil, the part of the body, the instrument, the means of displacement used to accomplish the action.
To find the CC de moyen, it is necessary that you ask these questions after the verb and the complement:
- Par quel moyens ? (How ?)
- Avec quoi ? (With what ?)
|CC de moyen||Questions||Translations|
|Je me rends à l'aéroport en métro||Je me rends à l'aéroport par quel moyen ?||(I am going to the airport by metro)|
|Versez 2cl de lait en remuant avec l'aide d'une cuillère en bois||Versez 2cl de lait en remuant avec quoi ?||(Pour 2cl of milk stirring with a wooden spoon)|
|Mon ami a réparé sa voiture avec la nouvelle batterie||Mon ami a réparé sa voiture avec quoi ?||(My friend repaired his car with the new battery)|
The position of a CC in French
To recognize a circumstantial complement, we must find a group of words that we can delete or move.
Le lundi, les étudiants vont à l'université. (On monday, students go to college)
- "le lundi" can be deleted, which is a CCT
- It can also be moved:
Les étudiants vont à l'université le lundi
Therefore, a circumstantial complement follow the verb or a complement. There can be two circumstantial complements in the same sentence
Je vais à l'école demain. (I am going to school tomorrow)
- "à l'école" is a circumstantial complement of place (CCL)
- "demain" is a circumstantial complement of time (CCT)
- The CCT can be also deleted.
The grammatical category of a CC
The grammatical nature of a circumstantial complement can be
- a noun
- a pronoun
- an adverb
- an infinitive verb
- a gerund
- a proposition
|Noun||La nuit, je me sens seule||CCT||(At night, I feel alone)|
|Pronoun||J'aimerais partir avec eux à Paris||CC de moyen||(I would like to go with them in Paris)|
|Adverb||Marchez discrètement !||CCM||(Walk slowly !)|
|Infinitive verb||Mangeons sain pour avoir une meilleur santé||CCB||(Let's eat healthy for a better health)|
|Gerund||Il marche en chantant||CCM||(He walks by singing)|
|Proposition||Nous resterons jusqu'à ce que tu ailles mieux||CC de conséquence||(We will stay until you get better)|
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