• French grammar
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  • 1 French alphabet
  • 2 French pronunciation and phonetics [0/7]
  • 3 Nature and function of French words [0/23]
  • Multiple choice exercise about the nature of French words (Score -/-)Free
  • Multiple choice questions about the function of French words (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 The subject in French [0/3]
  • 3.2 The apostrophe and apposition in French [0/2]
  • 3.3 The complement object in French [0/12]
  • 3.4 The circumstancial complement in French [0/2]
  • 3.5 The agent complement in French [0/2]
  • 4 French articles [0/9]
  • 5 French nouns [0/13]
  • 6 French pronouns [0/20]
  • Multiple choice questions about the pronouns in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 6.1 French personal pronouns - je, tu, il [0/3]
  • 6.2 French possessive pronouns - le mien, le tien [0/2]
  • 6.3 French reflexive pronouns - me, te, se [0/2]
  • 6.4 French demonstrative pronouns - celui, celle, ceux [0/2]
  • 6.5 French relative pronouns - qui, que, qu' [0/4]
  • 6.6 French indefinite pronouns - tout, chacun [0/2]
  • 6.7 French interrogative pronouns - qui, que, lequel [0/2]
  • 6.8 French adverbial pronouns - en, y [0/2]
  • 7 French adjectives [0/17]
  • Multiple choice questions about the epithet, attribute in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 7.1 Endings of regular and irregular French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.2 Comparative and superlative of French adjectives [0/3]
  • 7.3 Placement of French adjectives [0/2]
  • 7.4 French possessive adjectives - mon, ton, son [0/4]
  • 7.5 French demonstrative adjectives - ce, cette [0/2]
  • 7.6 French indefinite adjectives - toutes, quelques [0/2]
  • 8 French adverbs [0/18]
  • Drag and drop exercise about the adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blank exercise about the regular form of the adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blank exercise about the irregular adverbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Adverbs of place in French [0/2]
  • 8.2 Adverbs of time in French [0/2]
  • 8.3 Adverbs of manner in French [0/2]
  • 8.4 Adverbs of quantity in French [0/2]
  • 8.5 Adverbs of reason in French [0/2]
  • 8.6 Placement of adverbs in French [0/2]
  • 8.7 Comparative of French adverbs [0/2]
  • 8.8 Difference adjectives and adverbs in French [0/1]
  • 9 French prepositions [0/11]
  • 10 French verbs [0/135]
  • 10.1 Tenses and moods in French [0/63]
  • 10.1.1 Indicative in French [0/26]
  • 10.1.1.1 Present tense in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.1.2 Past tenses in French [0/13]
  • 10.1.1.3 Future tenses in French [0/11]
  • 10.1.2 Subjunctive in French (le Subjonctif) [0/11]
  • 10.1.3 Conditional in French (le conditionnel) [0/10]
  • 10.1.4 Imperative in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.5 Infinitive in French [0/4]
  • 10.1.6 Gerund in French [0/2]
  • 10.1.7 Present participle in French [0/3]
  • 10.1.8 Past participle in French [0/4]
  • 10.2 French auxiliary verbs (avoir, être) [0/11]
  • 10.3 Modal verbs in French [0/17]
  • Fill in the blank exercise for the modal verbs in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.3.1 Conjugation of pouvoir (can) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.2 Conjugation of devoir (should) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.3 conjugation of vouloir (want) in French [0/4]
  • 10.3.4 Conjugation of savoir (to know) in French [0/4]
  • 10.4 Passive voice in French [0/4]
  • 10.5 Reflexive verbs in French [0/4]
  • 10.6 Irregular verbs in French [0/24]
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the blanks exercise of the irregular verbs in French II (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.6.1 Conjugation of venir (to come) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.2 conjugation of aller (to go) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.3 conjugation of faire (to do) in French [0/4]
  • 10.6.4 conjugation of prendre (to take) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.5 conjugation of voir (to see) in French [0/3]
  • 10.6.6 Conjugation of partir (to leave) in French [0/4]
  • 10.7 Regular verbs in French [0/8]
  • 10.8 Reported Speech in French [0/4]
  • 11 French sentence structure [0/25]
  • Multiple choice questions about the sentence structure in French (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 The phrases in French [0/5]
  • 11.2 The forms of phrases in French [0/7]
  • 11.3 The types of phrases in French [0/8]
  • 11.4 The propositions in French [0/4]
  • 12 French si clauses [0/3]
  • The circumstancial complement in French

    Exercises

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    1. Multiple choice questions about the CC in French Score -/-
    2. Multiple choice questions about the CC course in French Score -/-

    What is the CC in French ? 

    The circumstantial complements (French: les compléments circonstanciels) are words or group of words and indicate in which circumstance the action takes place: at what time, in what place, in what way, for what purpose, for what cause, with what or by what?

    It completes the verb and can be deleted or moved. 

    There are many categories of circumstantial complements: 

    • The circumstantial complement of time
    • The circumstantial complement of place.
    • The circumstantial complement of way.
    • The circumstantial complement of purpose
    • The circumstantial complement of consequence
    • The circumstantial complement of means. 

    The circumstantial complement of time in French

    The circumstantial complément of time (French: le complément circonstanciel de temps) is abbreviated CCT and makes the understanding more precise

    1. situate an action at a specific moment
    2. indicate the duration of an action
    3. express the repetition of an action

    To find the CCT, you most often ask these questions after the verb or the complement: 

    • Quand ? (When ?)
    • Pendant combien de temps ? (How long ?)

    Examples

    CCT Questions Translation
    Je rentre demain matin. Je rentre quand ? (I am leaving tomorrow morning) 
    Pendant deux ans, j'ai vécu en Italie J'ai vécu en Italie, pendant combien de temps ?  (I had lived in Italy for two years)
    Les enfants partiront à l'école quand tu seras là Les enfants partiront à l'école quand ? (The kids will leave for school when you'll be here)

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    The circumstantial complement of place in French

    The circumstantial complement of place (French; le complément circonstanciel de lieu) is abbreaviated CCL and indicates where the action happens.

    To find the CCL, it is most often to ask the question after the verb and the complement. 

    • Où ? (Where ?)

    Examples

    CCL Questions Translation
    En France, je suis très célèbre Je suis très célèbre où ?  (In France, I'm very famous)
    Samantha a dû partir chez sa mère Samantha a dû partir où ? (Samantha had to leave her mom's)
    Pierre est venu me voir à l'école Pierre est venu me voir où ?  (Peter came to see me at school)

    The circumstantial complement of way in French

    The circumstantial complement of way (French: le complément circonstanciel de manière) is abbreviated CCM and indicates how the action takes place

    To find the CCM, it is necessary that you ask these questions after the verb and the complement. 

    • Comment ? (How ?)
    • De quel facon ? (How ?)
    • De quelle manière ? (How ?)

    Examples

    CCM Questions Translations
    Il mange au restaurant en criant Il mange au restaurant comment ? (He eats at the restaurant by yelling)
    Les enfants jouent bruyamment De quelle manière joue les enfants ?  (The children play loud)
    Nous attendons la série avec impatience Nous attendons la série comment ?  (We are waiting for the show eagerly)

    The circumstantial complement of purpose in French

    The circumstantial complement of purpose (French: le complément circonstanciel de but) is abbreviated CCB and expresses the objective that someone intentionally wishes to achieve or, on the contrary, avoid.

    To find the CC de but, is it necessary that you ask these question after the verb or the complement: 

    • Pourquoi ? (Why ?)
    • Dans quel but ? (For what ?)
    • En vue de quoi ? (For what ?)
    CC de but Questions Translations
    Marie révise sa leçon parce qu'elle veut avoir une bonne note Marie révise sa leçon pourquoi ?  (Marie is revising her lesson because she want to have a good mark)
    Je viendrai plus tard pour le discours de ton père Je viendrai plus tard dans quel but ? (I will come later for your dad's speech)
    Il s'entraîne chaque jour afin de devenir le meilleur Il s'entraine chaque jour en vue de quoi ? (He practise every day to become the best)

    enlightenedThe CC de but is usually introduced by prepositions like: pour, en vue de, afin de, dans l’intention de and many others.  

    The circumstantial complement of consequence in French 

    The circumstantial complement of cause (French: le complément circonstanciel de conséquence) is abbreviated CCC and expresses the result of an action

     This complement is used as the result of the cause which is also a circumstancial complement that indicates what happens first. 

    To find the CCC, it is necessary that you ask these questions after the verb and the complement:

    • Avec quel résultat ? (What results ?)
    • De manière à obtenir quel résultat ? (In order to get what ?)
    • Pour quel résultat ? (For what ?)

    Examples

    CC de cause  CC de conséquence Questions Translations
    Ils étaient trop malades pour aller à l'école Ils étaient trop malades pour aller l'école Ils étaient trop malades avec quel résultat ? (They were so sick to go to school)
    Ta soeur a couru au point d'avoir fait tomber son téléphone Ta soeur a couru au point d'avoir fait tomber son téléphone Ta soeur a couru de manière à obtenir quel résultat ? (Your sister ran to the point of dropping her phone)
    Je préfère dire la vérité à en perdre mon travail Je préfère dire la vérité à en perde mon travail Je préfère dire la vérité pour quel résultat ? (I prefer to tell the truth even if I lose my job)

    The circumstantial complement of means

    The circumstantial complement of means (French: le complément circonstanciel de moyen) is abbreviated CC de moyen to avoid the same abbreciation as the CCM. It indicates the tool, the utensil, the part of the body, the instrument, the means of displacement used to accomplish the action.

    To find the CC de moyen, it is necessary that you ask these questions after the verb and the complement:

    • Par quel moyens ? (How ?)
    • Avec quoi ? (With what ?)

    Examples

    CC de moyen Questions  Translations
    Je me rends à l'aéroport en métro Je me rends à l'aéroport par quel moyen ? (I am going to the airport by metro)
    Versez 2cl de lait en remuant avec l'aide d'une cuillère en bois Versez 2cl de lait en remuant avec quoi ? (Pour 2cl of milk stirring with a wooden spoon)
    Mon ami a réparé sa voiture avec la nouvelle batterie Mon ami a réparé sa voiture avec quoi ? (My friend repaired his car with the new battery)

    The position of a CC in French 

    To recognize a circumstantial complement, we must find a group of words that we can delete or move.

    Example:

    Le lundi, les étudiants vont à l'université. (On monday, students go to college)

    • "le lundi" can be deleted, which is a CCT 
    • It can also be moved:

    Les étudiants vont à l'université le lundi

    Therefore, a circumstantial complement follow the verb or a complement. There can be two circumstantial complements in the same sentence

    Je vais à l'école demain. (I am going to school tomorrow)

    • "à l'école" is a circumstantial complement of place (CCL)
    • "demain" is a circumstantial complement of time (CCT)
    • The CCT can be also deleted. 

    The grammatical category of a CC

    The grammatical nature of a circumstantial complement can be

    • a noun
    • a pronoun 
    • an adverb
    • an infinitive verb
    • a gerund
    • a proposition
    Nature Examples CC Translations
    Noun La nuit, je me sens seule CCT (At night, I feel alone)
    Pronoun J'aimerais partir avec eux à Paris CC de moyen (I would like to go with them in Paris)
    Adverb Marchez discrètement CCM (Walk slowly !)
    Infinitive verb Mangeons sain pour avoir une meilleur santé CCB (Let's eat healthy for a better health)
    Gerund Il marche en chantant CCM (He walks by singing)
    Proposition Nous resterons jusqu'à ce que tu ailles mieux CC de conséquence (We will stay until you get better)