• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • German relative pronouns

    Exercises

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    1. Exercise of German relative pronouns Score -/-
    2. Exercise: Find the fitting relative pronoun! Score -/-

    What is a relative pronoun in German?

    A German relative pronoun introduces a relative clause. This clause describes a nouns, pronoun or even a whole sentence more precisely. Therefore the relative pronouns replaces the related element in the relative clause. Gender and number of the pronoun are dependent to the element it is replacing.

    The most common relative pronouns are 'der/die/das' and 'welcher/welche/welches'.

    In English the mentioned pronouns can be translated with 'who', 'that' or 'which'. 

    Examples

    • Maria ist ein Mädchen, das Fußball mag. - Maria is a girl who likes football. 
    • Borussia Dortmund ist ein Verein, welcher ihr gefällt. - Borussia Dortmund is a club that she likes.
    • Marco Reus ist der Spieler, den sie am liebsten hat. - Marco Reus is the player which she likes most

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    Function of relative pronouns in German

    Relative pronouns are used to form relative clauses which consists of a main and a subordinate clause. The relative pronoun initiates the subordinate clause. 

    The subordinate clause gives a closer description of the a noun standing in the main sentence.

    enlightenedIn German the subordinate clause has a different structure than the main sentence: the verb stands in the end of the subordinate clause, the pronoun instead occupies the first place and a position very close to the related element.

    The subordinate clause can also stand in a middle position:

    • Die Katze, die sie schon ewig hatte, ist gestorben. - The cat, which she had since a long time, died.
    • Zähne, welche kariös sind, müssen behandelt werden. - Teeth, that are carious, have to be treated.

    Declension of relative pronouns in German

    The following tables show the declension of the most common relative pronouns in German. Most forms equal the forms of definite articles.

    'Der', 'die', 'das' 

    'der/die/das' are not only used as definite articles. They are also the most common relative pronouns.

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative der die das die
    Accusative den die das die
    Dative dem der dem denen
    Genitive dessen deren dessen deren

     

    Examples:

    • Hier ist der Patient, der gestern kam. - Here is the patient who came yesterday.
    • Magst du den Wagen, den ich fahre? - Do you like the car that I drive?
    • Das ist der Straßenhund, dem ich Futter gebe. - That is the street dog to which I give food.
    • Robin ist der Junge, dessen Kaninchen gestorben ist. - Robin is the boy, whose bunny died.

     

    'Welcher', 'welche', 'welches' 

    Instead of 'der/die/das' we can use 'welcher/welche/welches'.

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative welcher welche welches welche
    Accusative welchen welche welches welche
    Dative welchem welcher welchem welchen
    Genitive dessen deren dessen deren

     

    Examples:

    • Ich habe dir von dem Mann erzählt, welcher nebenan lebte- I told you about the men who lives next door.
    • Er mag den Tisch, welchen sie gekauft hast- He like the table (that) she bought.
    • Du hast einen Sohn, welchem du oft Geschenke machst. - You have a son to whom you often give presents.

     

    The case of relative pronouns in German

    Unlike number and gender, the case of the pronoun and the related element can be different: 

    The case of the relative pronoun depends on the verb (or the preposition) given in the relative clause.

    (Check out German cases to get more information!)

    Same case Different case
    • Den Stift, den du mir geschenkt hast, benutze ich oft. - i use often the pen you gave me.

    (both accusative)

    • Die Katze, die  sie schon ewig hatte, ist gestorben. The cat, which she had since a long time, died.

    (related noun in nominative and pronoun in accusative)

    • Der Hund, der im Park spielte, hatte spaß. - The tog, that was playing in the parc, had fun.

    (both nominative)

    • Der Hund, den ich gesehen habe, hatte Spaß - The dog, that I saw, had fun.

    (related noun in nominative and pronoun in accusative)

     

    Relative pronouns with prepositions

    Relative pronouns in German can be accompanied by prepositions.

    enlightenedThe pronouns case depends on the preposition now!

    The preposition stands before the relative pronoun in the relative clause.

    • Johannes ist der Freund, mit dem ich in den Urlaub fahre. - Johannes is the friend (that) I am going to travel with.
    • Das ist das Haus, in dem ich wohne. - That is the House (that) I live in.
    • Felix fährt das gleiche Auto, für das ich spare. - Felix drives the same car (that) I am saving money for.
    • Bus Nummer 23 ist der Bus, auf den ich warte. - Bus number 23 is the bus (that) I'm waiting for.

    'Was' and 'wo' as relative pronouns

    For some expressions in German we use 'was' and 'wo' as relative pronouns. These pronouns are not declined.

    Function of 'was'

    The relative pronoun 'was' can be used instead of 'das' to replace a noun. It can also replace another pronoun or even the whole main sentence.

      Examples
    Replacing a noun Jenes ist das Haus, was abgerissen wird. - That is the house that is being demolished.
    Replacing a pronoun Vieles, was du sagst ist falsch. - A lot of what you are saying is wrong. 
    Replacing a sentence

    Maria schreibt gute Noten, was ihrer Mutter sehr gefällt. - Maria gets good grades. Her Mother likes that.

    Function of 'wo'

    The relative pronoun 'wo' refers to a spacial or temporal element mentioned in the main sentence.

    Instead of 'wo' we can use the forms of 'der/die/das' or 'welcher/welche/welches' + preposition

      Examples Alternative 
    Replacing a spatial element Das ist der Ort, wo wir uns das erste mal getroffen haben. - That's the place, where we met for the first time. Das ist der Ort, an welchem wir uns das erste mal getroffen haben. - That's the place, where we met for the first time.
    Replacing a temporal element Sie kommen nächste Woche, wo ich wenig Zeit habe. -They're coming next week, when I don'thave much time. Sie kommen nächste Woche, in der ich wenig Zeit habe. -They're coming next week, when I don'thave much time.

     

    'Wohin, woher"

    If a replaced spatial element indicates some kind of direction we use 'wohin' or 'woher'.

    Relative Pronoun Translation Example
    wohin where(to) Carlos lebt in Kolumbien, wohin ich unbedingt mal Reisen möchte. - Carlos lives in Colombia, where I really want to travel someday.
    woher from where Das ist die Seite, woher ich die Informationen habe. - That's the page, (where) I have the information from.

    'Wo-' + preposition

    The word 'wo' can also be united with some prepositions.

    Relative Pronoun Translation Example
    womit  by/with which  Ich habe ein Radio, womit ich Musik höre. - I have a radio with which I listen to the music.
    wofür for which Er hat mir sehr geholfen, wofür ich mich bedanken möchten. - He helped me a lot, for which I am thankful. 
    worüber about (what / which) Das ist das Unglück, worüber die Nachrichten berichten. - Thats the tragedy the newas reports about.
    wovon about (what) /from (which) Das ist das, wovon ich dir erzählt habe. - That's what I told you about.