• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • German declension (N-declension)

    What kind of declension does exist in German?

    In German there exists 4 cases of declension:

    1. Nominative
    2. Genitive
    3. Dative
    4. Accusative
      Function Question What kind of verbs do use the case? What kind of prepositions do use this case?
    Nominative
    • Subject of the sentence
    • Attribute of the subject
    • Wer oder was? - Who or what?
    • sein
    • werden
    • bleiben
    • aussehen
     
    Genitive
    • specificatiom
    • complement
    • Wessen? - whose / of what? 
    • anklagen
    • bedürfen
    • gedenken
    • sich einer Sache bewusst sein
    • aufgrund
    • während
    • wegen
    • trotz
    • außerhalb
    • innerhalb
    • infolge
    Dative
    • Indirect obejct
    • Wem? - Whom?
    • danken
    • begegnen
    • glauben
    • gratulieren
    • helfen
    • folgen
    • aus
    • bei
    • mit
    • nach
    • seit
    • von
    • zu
    Accusative
    • Direct object
    • Wen oder was? - Who oder what?
    • haben
    • fragen
    • sagen
    • anrufen
    • suchen
    • brauchen
    • für
    • gegen
    • durch
    • ohne
    • um


    Summary table of the declension in the four cases

    Here you can find a summary of the declension of the four cases in German according to the number and gender with the definite and indefinite article.

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative der/ ein Hund die/ eine Katze das/ ein Pferd die Mäuse
    Genitive des/ eines Hundes der/ einer Katze des/ eines Pferdes der Mäuse
    Dative dem/ einem Hund der/ einer Katze dem/ einem Pferd den Mäusen
    Accusative den/ einen Hund die/ eine Katze das/ ein Pferd

    die Mäuse

    Translation:

    • der Hund - dog
    • die Katze - cat
    • das Pferd - horse
    • die Mäuse - mice

    enlightenedRemember: there is no indefinite article in the German plural.

    N-declension

    Nouns that take an -n/-en as an ending in every case (except in nominative plural) are declined according to the N-declension.  

    Nouns that follow the N-declension are weak and mixed masculine nouns.

    Weak masculine nouns

    This table shows all the endings that help you to identify the weak masculine nouns that follow the N-declension. They take the suffix -n/-en in all cases (except the singular nominative) and never take the -s in genitive singular

    Ending  Nouns Example
    -e

    Some animals:

    • der Löwe - lion 
    • der Hase - rabbit

    Male person:

    • der Zeuge - witness
    • der Junge - boy
    • der Kollege - colleague
    • der Neffe - nephew
    • der Kunde - client

    Nationalities:

    • der Grieche - Greek
    • der Franzose - French
    • Im Zoo sehe ich einen Löwen. -In the zoo I see a lion.
    • Sie haben dem Kunden ein kaputtes Zeug verkauft. - You have sold the customer a broken stuff. 
    • Der Führerschein des Jungen ist abgelaufen. - The driver's license has expired.
    • Ich gehe mit meinem Kollegen aus. - I am going out with my colleague.
    • Das Auto des Franzosen gefällt mir sehr. - I like the car of the French.
    -and der Doktorand - postgraduate Das Thesis des Doktoranden ist sehr lang. - The PhD's thesis is very long.
    -ant

    der Praktikant - intern

    der Elefant - elephant

    Der Chef erklärt dem Praktikanten seinen Job. - The boss explains his job to the trainee. 
    -at

    der Automat - automatic

    der Soldat - soldier

    Ich gehe zum Automaten, um die Fahrkarte zu bezahlen. - I go to the automatic to pay for the ticket.
    -ad der Kamerad - mate Die Mutter meines Kameraden kommt aus Polen. - The mother of my mate is from Poland. 
    -ent

    der Student - student

    der Assistent - assistant

    Das Buch des Studenten liegt auf dem Boden. - The book of the student is on the floor.
    -ist der Tourist - tourist Wir geben dem Touristen eine Landkarte. - We give the tourist a map.
    -af der Fotograf - photographer Die Bilder des Fotografen sind sehr schön. - The pictures of the photografer are very nice.
    -oge

    der Gynäkologegynecologist

    der Biologe - biologist

    Ich werde vom Gynäkologen untersucht. - I am examined by the gynecologist.
    -soph der Philosoph - philosopher Frag den Philosophen über die Theorie von Kant. Ask the philosophers about the theory of Kant.
    -urg der Chirurg - surgeon Die Operation wird von dem Chirurgen durchegführt. - The operation is accomplished by the surgeon.
    Nouns of foreign origin

    der Pilot - pilot

    der Architekt - architect

    der Favorit - favourite

    Das Flugzeug gehört nicht dem Piloten. - The  plane does not belong to the pilot.

     

    Of course there always exception to these rules. Here are some of the nouns that are also declined according to the N-declension, but have different endings:

    • der Held - hero
    • der Bär - bear
    • der Mensch - human
    • der Prinz - prince
    • der Nachbar - neighbor
    • der Herr - sir/Lord

    Examples:

    • Der Hund des Herrn ist ein Labrador. - The dog of the Lord is a labrador.
    • Ich fahre mit meinem Nachbarn in die Stadt. - I'm going to town with my neighbor.
    • Die Frau des Prinzen ist die Prinzessin. - The wife of the prince is the princess.
    • Als ich am Nordpol war, habe ich einen weißen Bären gesehen. - When I was at the north pole, I saw a white bear.

    Mixed masculine nouns (-s in genitive singular)

    Mixed masculine nouns also follow the N-declension. They take the suffix -n/-en in every four cases (except nominative singular), but also a  -s in genitive singular.

    Here are some mixed masculine nouns, that follow this rule.

    • der Buchstabe - the letter (alphabet)
    • der Name - name
    • der Wille - will
    • der Friede - peace
    • der Gedanke - thought
    • del Glaube - faith
    • der Samen - seed
    • der Funke - spark

    Examples:

    • Ich habe deinen Namen vergessen. - I have forgotten your name.
    • Der Vokal des Namens ist ein E. - The vowel of the name is an E.
    • Das Symbol des Friedens ist eine weiße Taube. - The symbol of peace is a white pigeon.
    • Wir hoffen auf den Frieden. - We hope for peace. 

    enlightenedBe careful: das Herz is neuter, but behaves like a masculine mixed noun. 

    yes Now you can practise these rules by doing our exercises. If you still have doubts, you should study case by case. Find links to the German cases at the top of this page.

    Exercises

    Exercise of the genitive case

    Exercise of the dative case

    Learn how to use the accusative case

    Exercise of the N-declension