• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • Different types of adjectives in German

    Adjectives are words that characterize and describe anybody or anything. In German there exist different types of adjectives and some of them change their ending in accordance to fit to the word they refer to. This chapter will deal with the different types and their usage in German language.

    Predicative adjective in German

    Most adjectives can occur before or after a noun, like "the red car" or "the car is red". In case of predicative adjectives, the adjective follows the noun of a sentence. Very often, the predicative adjective and the noun of a sentence are seperated by a verb. It's important to know, that predicative adjectives do not change their style!

    Verbs introducing predicative adjectives

    Predicate adjectives are one of the different types of adjectives and therefore it's imporant to know when to use predicate adjectives. In German, predicate adjectives are used when the adjective follows a form of the verbs werden, sein or bleiben.

    enlightenedThe predicative adjective remains in the same form, regardless of the number, gender and case of the noun.

    • Das Spiel ist lustig. (The game is funny.)
    • Der Film war interessant. (The film was interesting.)
    • Der Vortrag wird spannend. (The lecture will be exciting.)
    • Die Blätter bleiben grün. (The leaves stay green.)

    Predicative adjectives of the subject

    Predicative adjectives can either refer to the subject or the object of a sentence. Especially the verbs werden, sein und bleiben refer to the subject of a sentence.

    • Das Haus ist schön. (The house is beautiful.)
    • Er sieht nett aus. (He looks friendly.)
    • Der Clown ist lustig. (The clown is funny.)

    In all sentences, the adjectives are used to describe the subject of the sentence. "Schön" therefore describes the subject "Haus" and "nett" describes the subject "Er".

    Predicative adjectives of the object

    In contrast to that, the adjectives can also refer to the object of a sentence.

    • Sie strichen das Haus blau. (They coloured the house blue.)
    • Das Training machte mich besser. (The training made me better.)
    • Ich fand das Buch war langweilig. (I think the book was boring.)

    In this sentences the predicative adjectives refer to the direct object of the sentence ("Haus" and "Training"), and not to the subject ("Sie" and "Mich").

    Adjectives only used as predicative adjectives

    Some adjectives can only be used in the predicative way. They can only be linked to the noun via a verb and can't get declined.

    • Der Junge geht barfuß. (The boy goes barefoot.) nicht: Der barfuße Junge.
    • Das Wetter ist egal. (The weather doesn't matter.) nicht: Das egale Wetter.
    • Die Freunde sind pleite. (The friends are bankrupt.) nicht: Die pleiten Freunde.

    Attributive adjectives in German

    Predicative adjectives do not change their style, regardless of which type of noun they refer to. In contrast to this, attributive adjectives change their endings, depending on the noun they refer to.

    Declension of attributive adjectives in German

    Because the adjective comes between the article of the noun and the noun itself, you have to decline the adjective referring to the type of noun. Therefore the adjective has to conform with the noun related to number, gender and case. To decline them in the right way, there exist three different types of declencion:

    1. weak declension (definite article + adjective), e.g. der schöne Hund (the beautiful dog)
    2. mixed declension (indefinite article + adjective), e.g. ein schöner Hund (a beautiful dog)
    3. strong declension (no article + adjective), e.g. schöner Hund (beautiful dog)

    enlightenedKeep in mind, that attributive adjectives are the only adjectives that are declined in German language.

    Weak declension of attributive adjectives

    This declension is used, when the article itself gives all information about number, case and gender of the noun.

    Weak declension Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative der gute Hund die gute Katze das gute Tier die guten Hunde/Katzen/Tiere
    Accusative

    den guten Hund

    die gute Katze das gute Tier die guten Hunde/Katzen/Tiere
    Dative dem guten Hund(e) der guten Katze dem guten Tier(e) den guten Hunden/Katzen/Tieren
    Genitive des guten Hundes der guten Katze des guten Tier(es) der guten Hunde/Katzen/Tiere

     

    enlightenedIf you look closely at it you might realize, that you only have to add an -e or -en.

    Mixed declension of attributive adjectives

    The mixed declension is used, when an indefinite article (like ein, kein), or a possesive determiner (like mein, dein, ihr etc.) describes the noun.

    Mixed declension Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative ein guter Hund eine gute Katze ein gutes Tier keine guten Hunde/Katzen/Tiere
    Accusative einen guten Hund eine gute Katze ein gutes Tier keine guten Hunde/Katzen/Tiere
    Dative einem guten Hund(e) einer guten Katze einem guten Tier(e) keinen guten Hunden/Katzen/Tieren
    Genitive eines guten Hundes einer guten Katze eines guten Tieres keiner guten Hunde/Katzen/Tiere

     

    enlightenedMixed declension table is the same as the weak declension table, except the nominative masculine, the nominative neuter and accusative neuter.

    Strong declension of attributive adjectives

    The strong declension is used, when there is no preceding article related to the noun, or the preceding article doesn't give enough information about number, gender and case of the noun.

    Strong declension Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative guter Hund gute Katze gutes Tier gute Hunde/Katzen/Tiere
    Accusative guten Hund gute Katze gutes Tier gute Hunde/Katzen/Tiere
    Dative gutem Hund(e) guter Katze gutem Tier(e) guten Hunden/Katzen/Tieren
    Genitive guten Hundes guter Katze guten Tieres guter Hunde/Katzen/Tiere

     

    enlightenedKeep in mind that the ending for genitive masculine and neuter is -en.

    Adverbial adjectives in German

    An Adverb can be a word or a set of words that modifies adjectives, verbs or other adverbs. They can give us information about the how, when, where, how often and to what degree.

    1. Adverbs of time (This words will give you information about the when)
      • e.g. heute, gestern, morgen, sofort, seit
    2. Adverbs of frequency (This words will give you information about the how often)
      • e.g. manchmal, oft, immer, nie, regelmäßig
    3. Adverbs of quality (This words give you information about the how)
      • e.g. gut, schlecht, mittelmäßig
    4. Adverbs of quantity (This words tell you about the how often as well)
      • e.g. viel, wenig, gar nicht
    5. Adverbs of intensity (This words will give you information about the degree of something happening)
      • e.g. sehr, total, überhaupt nicht

    enlightenedIn adverbial use, the adjective comes with no ending.

    For example:

    • Petra kann sehr gut kochen. (Petra can cook very well.)
    • Er singt oft. (He is singing frequently.)
    • Peter fährt immer schnell. (Peter always drives fast.)

    enlightenedIf more than one adverb appears in series, the adverbs are ordered as follows: time, manner, place.

    • Sie ist jetzt leider draußen. (She is unfortunately outside now.)

    Adjectives as nouns in German

    Many adjectives can also be used as nouns. They then either stand for people or abstract objects, like things you can't touch. Again, the ending of the noun is then determined by its number, gender and case. If you use adjectives as nouns it's important to write them with a capital letter.

    • der/die Kranke (the sick person)
    • ein Kranker/eine Kranke (a sick person)
    • Kranke (sick persons)

    enlightenedIn German, much more adjectival nouns are used than in English.

    Gender of adjectival nouns in German

    Of course the gender of a noun depends on the adjective that is transformed into a noun. If the noun is describing a special person, then the noun will be masculine or feminine, depending in the person's sex. If the noun doesn't refer to any kind of person, it's usually neuter.

    Adjective Noun (masculine) Noun (feminine)
    blond (blond) der Blonde (male blond person) die Blonde (female blond person)
    alt (old) der Alte (old male person) die Alte (old female person)
    verwandt (related) der Verwandte (male relative) die Verwandte (female relative)

     

    Adjective Noun (neuter)
    böse (evil) das Böse (the evil)
    ganz (whole) das Ganze (the whole)
    wichtig (important) das Wichtige (that which is important)

     

    enlightenedIf you want to use an adjective as a noun, just add an -e to the end of the adjective, change its first letter to a capital one, and put an article (der, die, das) in front of it.

    Declension of adjectival nouns

    The declension of this nouns is quite easy, because they take the exact same declensions as the adjectives would do in the same grammatical context.

    enlightenedIt may help if you at first imagine the declension of the adjective, because the adjectival noun has the exact same endings.

    Declension Masculine Feminine Plural
    Nominativ der Deutsch(the german male) die Deutsche (the german female) die Deutschen
    Akkusativ den Deutschen die Deutsche die Deutschen
    Dativ dem Deutschen der Deutschen den Deutschen
    Genitiv des Deutschen der Deutschen

    der Deutschen

    Adjectival nouns with ‘etwas’, ‘nichts’, ‘wenig’ and ‘viel’

    If the adjectives follow one of the words etwas (something), nichts (nothing), wenig (little) or viel (much), the adjectives are formed as a neuter noun and get capitalized.

    • Sie kocht etwas Gutes. (She is cooking something good.)

    • Ich habe nichts Neues gelernt. (I haven't learned anything new.)

    • Er hat wenig Interessantes erfahren. (He learned little interesting.)

    • Er macht viel Gutes. (He does much good.)

    Exercises

    Exercise for the different functions of German adjectives

    Exercise on predicative and attributive adjectives

    Exercise on German adjectives as nouns