• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • German reflexive pronouns

    Exercises

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    1. Exercise of German reflexive pronouns Score -/-
    2. Exercise: Which German reflexive pronoun is needed? Score -/-

    What are reflexive pronouns in German?

    Reflexive pronouns ensure that the action expressed by the predicate is reflected on the subject. They linked to specific verbs that require reflective pronominal use, the so-called reflexive or reciprocal verbs.

    Declension of German reflexive pronouns

    Reflexive pronouns are declined by their...

    • ... number (singular, plural)
    • ... case (nominative, accusative, dative)
    Person Nominative

    Accusative

    Dative

    In English 
    1st person singular  ich mich  mir myself
    2nd person singular  du  dich  dir yourself
    3rd person singular  er / sie / es sich sich him- /her- / itself
    1st person plural  wir uns uns ourselves
    2nd person plural  ihr euch euch yourselves
    3rd person plural sie sich sich themselves

     

    enlightenedReflexive pronouns equal personal pronouns, except the 3rd-person forms in singular and plural. 

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    Nominative case

    The nominative case is used to express the subject. For this reason thee are no reflective forms to the nominative. It coincide with the personal pronoun.

    Examples:

    • Das bin ich. - That's me.
    • Wohin gehst du? - Where do you go?

    Accusative case

    Verbs and prepositions which require accusative

      German English
    Verbs

    sich auf den Weg machen

    sich auskennen

    sich ausruhen, 

    sich erholen

    sich irren

    ...

    to set off

    to know about (something)

    to rest

    to recover

    to be wrong

    ...

    Preposition

    bis

    durch

    entlang

    für

    gegen

    ohne

    um

    ...

     

    till

    through

    along

    for

    against

    without

    around

    ...

     

     

    Examples:

    • Ich bereite mich für die Prüfung vor. - I prepare myself for the exam.
    • Sie wäscht sich. - She washes herself.

    Dative case

    Verbs and prepositions which require dative

      German Prepositions
    Verbs

    sich etwas denken

    sich Mühe geben

    sich Zeit lassen

    sich Sorgen machen

    sich etwas merken

    sich vorstellen

    ...

    to think something

    make an effort

    to take yourself time

    to worry

    to memorize something

    to introduce oneself

    ...

    Prepositions

    aus

    bei

    gegenüber

    mit

    nach

    seit

    von

    zu

    ...

    out

    at

    opposite

    with

    after

    since

    from

    to

    ...

     

    Examples:

    • Er kocht sich ein Ei. - He cooks (himself) an egg.
    • Du machst dir Sorgen. - You worry.

    enlightenedThere is no genitive case of reflexive pronouns!

    Usage and function of reflexive pronouns

    Reflexive pronouns can be used to reflect an action to oneself or to indicate a reciprocal action between two or more people or things.

    Reflexive verbs

    These verbs need a reflexive pronoun to refer to oneself.  

    Examples:

    • Er schneidet sich. - he cuts himself.
    • Ich wünsche mir viel Glück-  I wish myself good luck.

    Reciprocal verbs

    These verbs need a reflexive pronoun to refer to each other. They are exclusively used in plural form.

    Examples:

    • Wir lieben uns. - We love each other.
    • Sie verstehen sich. - They understand each other.

    The position of German reflexive pronouns in a sentence

    Unlike in English the reflexive pronoun can occupy different positions in sentences in German. 

    • Third position: in a main sentence, immediately after the subject and the conjugate verb.
    • Fourth position: in a main sentence, when the first place is already occupied by another element and follows verb and subject.
    • Before or after the subject: depending on the length of the subject can precede or follow it.
    • It can not only stand in the main sentence. It can also be part of a secondary sentences.

     

      Examples
    3rd position

    Er hat sich heute ein neues Auto gekauft. - He bought himself a new car today.

    4th posiion Heute hat er sich ein neues Auto gekauft. - Today he bought himself a new car.

    Before or after the subject

    Seit langem wollte Hans sich ein neues Auto kaufen. - Since a long time hans wated to buy (himself) a car.

    Seit langem wollte sich Hans ein neues Auto kaufen. - Since a long time Hans wated to buy (himself) a car.


    Subordinate clause

    Hans ist aufgeregt, weil er sich heute ein neues Auto gekauft hat. - Hans is excited because he bought (himself) a new car today.