A relative clause is a dependent clause. The finite verb has to be placed in the last position. You will always find a comma in order to separate the relative clause from the main clause. With a relative clause you can give additional information about the main clause.
In order to form a relative clause we need a relative pronoun or a relative adverb. In German, the relative pronoun always has to be in the dependent sentence. Comparing to English to German, the relative pronouns can sometime be left out. Relative pronouns have to be declined according to the case. Relative adverbs don't change their form.
We already discussed the declension of relative pronouns, but here is the most important table.
|nominative||der/ welcher||die/ welche||das/ welches||die/ welche|
|accusative||den/ welchen||die/ welche||das/ welches||die/welche|
|dative||dem/ welchem||der/ welcher||dem/ welchem||denen/ welchen|
Sometimes there is a "problem" occurring, if you are using der/die/das as a relative pronoun. The better version is to use welcher.
The relative adverbs often are connected to a entire clause. Therefore, they don't change their form.
Relative clauses refer usually to a subject or an object of the previous main clause. Therefore, they are placed right after the subject or object they do describe. The position of the relative clause can be at the end, or in the middle of a sentence.
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