In German nominal groups (articles, adjectives or nouns) are declined corresponding to their case. That means they have different endings according to their function in the sentence. In German there are 4 declension cases.
To identify the case of a noun, there are certain questions to ask for a specific case.
This table shows you the declension of different nouns split up into the cases, the gender and number.
|Nominative||der / ein Mann||die / eine Frau||das / ein Kind||die Leute|
|Accusative||den / einen Mann||die / eine Frau||das / ein Kind|
|Dative||dem / einem Mann||der / einer Frau||dem / einem Kind|
des / eines Mannes
|der / einer Frau|
des / eines Kindes
Remember: there is no indefinite article in plural in German.
This table shows you the personal pronouns changing in the different cases.
|First person singular||ich - I||mir - me||mich - me|
|Second person singular||du - you (informal)||dir - you||dich - you|
|Third person singular||er/sie/es - he/she/it||ihm/ihr/ihm - him/her/it||ihn/sie/es - him/her/it|
|First person plural||wir - we||uns - us||uns - us|
|Second person plural||ihr - you||euch - you||euch - you|
|Third person plural||sie/Sie - they/ you (formal)||ihnen / Ihnen - them||sie/Sie - them|
The nominative is always the subject of a sentence. It answers the questions
Wer oder was? - Who or what?
In this table you can find several examples for the declension of noun and their articles in the different genders. In addition, there are some examples of adjectives that accompany a noun in the nominative case.
|With a definite article||der Vater||die Mutter||das Kind||die Leute|
|With an indefinite article||ein Vater||eine Mutter||ein Kind||Leute|
|With a definite article + adjective||der gute Vater||die schöne Mutter||das lustige Kind||die vielen Leute|
|With an indefinite article + adjective||ein guter Vater||eine schöne Mutter||ein lustiges Kind||viele Leute|
Remember: there is no indefinite article in German plural.
1. As the subject of the verb
2. As a predicate nominative
A predicative nominative is a noun that is equated with the subject of the sentence or clause. It follows a linking verb and refers back to it.
Here are some linking verbs:
3. As a noun of a direct address
You have to use the nominative case in phrases where you use the imperative or you directly address someone.
Usually the nominative, being the subject, occupies the first place in a sentence and the it is followed by the verb. However, it often happens that the sentence starts with an adverb or another element. In this case, since the verb always occupies the second place, the nominative (subject) comes after the verb (in third place).
The genitive is a complement of a noun, that means it completes the noun to which it refers to. It answers the question
Wessen? - whose / of what?
In this table you can find several examples for the declension of noun and their articles in the different genders. In addition, there are some examples of adjectives that accompany a noun in the genitive case.
|With a definite article||des Mannes||der Frau||des Kindes||der Leute|
|With an indefinite article||eines Mannes||einer Frau||eines Kindes||Leute|
|With a definite article + adjective||des guten Mannes||der schönen Frau||des lustigen Kindes||der vielen Leute|
|With an indefinite article + adjective||eines guten Mannes||einer schönen Frau||eines lustigen Kindes||vieler Leute|
1. To show possession of relationships between two nouns
The genitive is used to express possession or a relationship between people and/or objects. In English it is translated with the preposition of or
2. With expressions of indefinite time
The genitive can also be used as an adverb to give indications about an indefinite duration or period. In English it is expressed by for instance: one day, some day.
The female noun die Nacht behaves in this case as a masculine or a neutral noun.
3. With prepositions
The genitive case used with certain prepositions. You can find them in this list.
4. With genitive verbs
There are some verbs that are in need of the genitive in German. These shows you some of them with an example. In German it sounds more formal, so that it is not used often.
5. With genitive adjectives
There are some adjectives that are followed by the genitive case.
Ich bin mir der Antwort nicht sicher. - I am not sure about the answer.
Er ist sich seines Fehlers bewusst. - He is aware of his fault.
Sie ist dieses Namens würdig. - She is worthy of this name.
The genitive of proper names can also be formed with ending a -s (possessive genitive). Therefore you have to put the name in front of the noun (the possession) and add the suffix -s. In English it is nearly the same, but with an apostrophe.
The genitive of proper nouns can be formed using the von preposition before the proper noun.
Be careful: the genitive cases changes into a dative cases then!
The dative is an indirect object in the sentence and forms the answer to the question
Wem? - whom?
In this table you can find several examples for the declension of noun and their articles in the different genders. In addition, there are some examples of adjectives that accompany a noun in the dative case.
|With a definite article||dem Mann||der Frau||dem Kind||den Leuten|
|With an indefinite article||einem Mann||einer Frau||einem Kind||Leuten|
|With a definite article + adjective||dem guten Mann||der schönen Frau||dem lustigen Kind||den vielen Leuten|
|With an indefinite article + adjective||einem guten Mann||einer schönen Frau||einem lustigen Kind||vielen Leuten|
1. As the indirect object of the verb
In English the indirect object (dative) is often expressed by the preposition to and for. In addition, there are some verbs in German, that use the dative case as an indirect object of the verb and the accusative case as the direct object of the verb.
This list shows verbs that are frequently used with direct and indirect objects.
Examples (the dative is highlighted):
2. With dative verbs
There are some German verbs that only take the dative object. They are listed here:
3. With prepositions
This table list shows preposition that usually use the dative case.
4. With verbs of location and contracted prepositions
There are contracted prepositions (prepositions + article) that are used in the dative case and additionally expresses a position, location or a motion within a fixed location. These prepositions can answer the question wo? - in what place?/where?
Be careful: Verbs of movement + contracted prepositions always require the accusative case.
Here is a list of verbs that express position, location or a motion within a fixed location.
Examples for preposition + dative:
The accusative is used as the direct object in the sentence and forms the answer to the questions
Wen oder was? - who or what?
In this table you can find several examples for the declension of noun and their articles in the different genders. In addition, there are some examples of adjectives that accompany a noun in the accusative case.
|With a definite article||den Mann||die Frau||das Kind||die Leute|
|With an indefinite article||einen Mann||eine Frau||ein Kind||Leute|
|With a definite article + adjective||den guten Mann||die schöne Frau||das lustige Kind||die vielen Leute|
|With an indefinite article + adjective||einen guten Mann||eine schöne Frau||ein lustiges Kind||viele Leute|
1. As the direct Object of the verb
All transitive verbs support the direct object and for this reason are followed by the accusative.
2. With expressions of definite time and duration of time
Nominal groups that express the frequency of an activity or a time are always in the accusative case.
3. With prepositions
There are some prepositions that always followed by the accusative case.
4. With verbs of movement and contracted prepositions
There are verbs that, depending on the action (whether it is static or a movement), govern the dative or the accusative case. The dative case is used when it comes to static verbs and the accusative case is used with movement.
Here are some verbs of movement
Prepositions that can be contracted:
Example of prepositions (some of them are contracted) and verbs of movement:
5. With sentence in passive
In passive phrases the object complement becomes subject and the subject becomes object complement.
The accusative is used in passive forms only when it is introduced by durch.
|Die Operation hat den Patienten gerettet. - The operation rescued the patient.||Der Patient wurde durch die Operation gerettet. - The patient was rescued by the operation.|
|Seine Schwester isst einen Apfel. - His sister eats an apple.||Der Apfel wird von seiner Schwester gegessen. - The apple is eaten by his sister.|
Welcome to everyone who would like to learn a new language or deepen their knowledge! I am studying DaF (German as a foreign language) as a subsidiary subject at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. I have already gained more than 300 hours of experience in adult education through internships. I design my online lessons communicatively and technically at a high Level with the help of various tools . In addition to my teaching, I offer interactive links with exercises that are perfectly adapted to the topic.
I have already gained experience in preparing for the TELC exam.
I am looking forward to inspiring you through my online lessons!
I am also happy to give French lessons for beginners (level A1 to B1). French is my language of choice, I studied it and I have been teaching French courses with great enthusiasm for one year now.
I also take great pleasure in my SWISS-GERMAN courses!
Please contact me if you have any questions.
Hello Jose! Thank you very much for your nice message. I am incredibly pleased that you are satisfied with my lessons. See you soon! Naira
Hello everyone and a big warm welcome to all the fellow language learners,
My name is Katerina, I’m a native Russian speaker and a foreign language teacher from St Petersburg, Russia. I’ve always been addicted to learning foreign languages, be it English, German, Spanish, Turkish or Arabic, so turning my passion into my job was just a matter of time. I have a Master’s degree in linguistics which taught me to understand the way the mechanism of a language works and thus to help my students see the logics behind the grammar rules. Being a constant language learner enables me to see the process from both sides and to predict the difficulties my students might face. The fact that I’m not a native speaker of English or German means I’ve been through exactly the same language-learning journey you’re about to take, and thanks to my personal experience as a student, I can make this road smooth for you.
I've had students of all ages, from pre-school kids to senior generation, and I feel comfortable working with both beginners and those who are eager to take their learning process to a new level. In my classes I encourage you to talk in the language we’re studying as much as possible, putting every single bit of knowledge into practice right away. If you’re a Russian-learner, I’d be glad to prove it to you that you can absolutely nail my mother-tongue - and yes, you’ll be able to make a small talk in Russian by the end of the first class even if you’re an absolute beginner! We’ll be focusing on the topics that are most relevant to your goals, while discovering the language and getting to know more about the culture of people who speak it.
I offer a short free trial class, for us to give each other a smile and discuss our teaching pattern, in order to ajust it to your goals and make our lessons the bee's knees :) See you soon!
Dear Silvia, thank you very much for your feedback! It's a real pleasure to have classes with you, and I hope you find them useful!
My name is Christina and I provide fun German and French language lesson for children and adult beginners or intermediate who want to strengthen their language skills, improve the grammar knowledge, enrich the vocabulary and get into the German culture! I can teach in English or French!
I had experince in teaching German, English and French to foreign people so I do have a lot of useful learning material I can provide you to make it easier!
Thanks a lot Padraig ..... good luck Thank you very much Padraig and good luck
Hi, my name is Mihaela and I´m a German language teacher with a Masters degree in German, who was born and lived in Switzerland.
I work since 2015 as German language teacher for various companies, but since I love languages, I work also as a translator and became a sworn translator (certified German court interpreter) in 2016. In 2018 I opened my own company for translation and language education.
– ABOUT THE CLASS –
I offer standard language courses for A1, A2, B1, B2 level.
The topics and exercises are following the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), because of that they include grammar, speaking and reading exercises.
The lessons will also prepare you for following tests: Start Deutsch A1 + A2, telc Deutsch Beruf A2 + B1, Zertifikat Deutsch (B1).
This is ideal for students who want to improve their fluency and communication skills through conversations by actively participating in the class and for students who want to learn new words to improve their vocabulary by reading texts on various topics.
My teaching method is to adapt to every student differently depending on their needs and language level.
All learning materials and exercises will be provided before or during the lesson.
* Please don't book lessons without consulting, because coLanguage shows only my general availability, not the actual.
Thank you very much Marilena :)
Thank you very much Alessandra. I am very happy about your message, but above all about your progress and I am very proud of you. You are very ambitious and you have the right motivation. We are a good team together. All the best and until the next lesson.
I would be very glad if you let me be your guide through your language lessons. Spanish is my mother tongue and I really enjoy explaning things that might seem difficult to students. I like explaining grammar, pronounciation, vocabulary and useful idioms. I have been teaching foreign languages since 1994. I can also speak fluently English, Czech, Italian, French, and German. I can teach them too:) I have got a certification as a German Teacher from Goehte Institut Munich and many other certifications for the other languages (Italian PLIDA, French Diplome de Langue, French DELF and DALF, plenty of training courses for teaching Spanish, English TOEFL..) I also have a Ph.D. in Political Economy from the University of Economics in Prague. My favourite students are my three almost "four"lingual daughters:) with which I test all the teaching methods I know...
I always try to adapt my methodology to each student´s needs and expectations, so feel free to contact me and we can start our lessons!
Thank you so much for the Chiara review! It was a real pleasure to have this lesson with you. I wish you a nice trip with the German language!
My interest in learning foreign languages has arisen since I was a young girl. At 13 I made up my mind to attend the foreign language high school where I graduaded with proficiency. After a few years I got my University degree.
I have been teaching for a few years privately via Skype Italian mainly to German adult students. My method is based to consolidate the grammar knowledge if previuosly done or to base it by catching their attention on interesting topics. I provide my students all material needed to plan a valuable lesson and for this reason I have gathered fulfilling reviews on other teaching platforms
About Italian students studying German with me, most of them are interested in deeping topics dealt at school or being prepared to get a certification.
I look forward to hearing from you
Maria Grazia L.
Thanks a lot for the nice review. It is a real pleasure to be able to help you with German.
I am a German native speaker who loves languages and am passionate about teaching others. I work as language teacher in a school, teach adults at the German Culture Center and prepare my students for all types of official language exams. I love my job and always seek to make it as much fun as possible.
I am happy that I can help you.
I'm a Italian/German bilingual teacher form Florence!
I offer lessons for beginners as well as for advanced speakers. I carry out different kinds of lessons: I could help you for example to prepare for a test, for your trip to Italy or for more advanced needs.
The lessons are focused on improving listening/comprehension skills as well as reading, writing, speaking and grammar.
If you want to know more about my methods, just book a trial lesson! It's free! I hope to see you soon!
So with me you can learn all the tipps to improve or learn German. I also worked as an Engineer for several years so we can as well work on your vocabulary in a technical level.
I am a great fan of new cultures and languages.
Feel free to contact me for a class :)
my name is Nina, I'm from Austria and I also lived for one year and a half in Canada. I worked there as a German Teacher for adults, so I speak German, English and French.
I also teach English for beginners and advanced beginners.
My teaching methodes are totally based on the level of my student. If somebody is already advanced, I focus on communication and pronunciation. We will arrange on a topic and talk and discuss in the lesson about it.
If my student is a beginner, I'm gonna start with the basics of the German language. (the articles, the verb "to be", the pronouns...)
The learning material is all made by myself, because I'm a German teacher, so that means, I already got lots of working sheets for many topics. I send these to my student via e-mail or put it directly on the coLanguage homepage.
I'm available from Monday to Thursday between 5pm and 08:00 pm. For the weekend it's the best to just send me a request.
Of course is a free trial lesson (it's about 20 minutes) possible.
I'm happy to teach you :-)
See you soon! Nina
My name is Karolin and I have been living in Chile for more than 2 years now. I've been teaching via Skype for quite some time and I've found that this kind of work is fun. That's why I would like to expand my circle of students.
Both in English and in German, I teach classes for beginners and advanced students. I speak Spanish fluently, but I do not want to cheat anyone, so I note here that I speak the spanish from Chile. I learned and teach the spanish from Spain and I can explain the differences if you're interested, but that is why I only teach spanish for beginners.
If you'd like to get to know me and my teaching methods, just contact me and we will do a free trial lesson.
See you soon!
My name's Eleonora. I am from Ukraine. I am a qualified teacher and a Russian native speaker.
In 2007 I graduated from pedagogical university and since that time I work as a teacher. I love my job and always ready to share my knowledge with everyone.
If you want to improve your Russian, English or German or start learning them you will definitely like my lessons. My classes are developed for each student according to their level, interests and needs.
I try to make lessons various and use different kinds of teaching methods, exercises and technologies. My lessons include:
My schedule is quite flexible so contact me and we'll arrange the time for lessons.