• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • What are Pronouns in German?

    German pronouns have the same functions as in English. They are used to replace or sometimes accompany a name or a noun and refer to people or things. 

    There are seven different types of pronouns in German:

    1. Personal pronouns
    2. Possessive pronouns
    3. Demonstrative pronouns
    4. Interrogative pronouns
    5. Reflexive pronouns
    6. Indefinite pronouns
    7. Relative pronouns

    Most of the pronouns have to be declined in...

    • ... number (singular, plural)
    • ... gender (masculine, feminine, neuter)
    • ... and case (nominative, genitive, dative accusative)

    Personal pronouns (ich, du, er, sie, es, wir, ihr, sie)

    Personal pronouns in German are replacements for already mentioned nouns. They refer to a specific person, thing or group and are also used to address other people or to talk about ourselves.

    Personal pronouns have to be declined in... 

    • ...number,
    • ...gender,
    • ...and case.
     

    Nominative

    Dative

    Accusative Genitive
    1st Person Singular  ich mir mich meiner
    2nd Person Singular du dir dich deiner
    3rd Person Singular  er/sie/es ihm/ihr/ihm sich seiner/ihrer/seiner
    1st Person Plural wir uns uns unserer
    2nd Person Plural ihr euch euch eurer
    3rd Person Plural sie ihnen sich ihrer

    Examples

    • Ich liebe meine Frau. I love my wife.

    • Magst du Kuchen? - Do you like cake?
    • Er ist nach Berlin gereist. - He traveled to Berlin.
    • Sie ist krank. - She is sick.
    • Es ist sehr Süß. - It is very cute
    • Uns ist das egal. - We don't care about it.
    • Euch gefällt die deutsche Sprache. - You like the German language.
    • Sie lieben sich. - They love each other.

    To find out more, please check out 'German personal pronouns'. 

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    Possessive pronouns (mein, dein, sein, unser, euer, ihr)

    Possessive pronouns are used to indicate ownership or affiliation. To decline possessive pronouns in German we always use the word stem shown in the table. The word stem gives information about the person. 

      Personal Pronoun Possessive Pronoun (word stem)  English Translation
    1st person singular ich mein- my 
    2nd person singular du dein your 
    3rd person singular (m) er sein- his
    3rd person singular (f) sie ihr- her 
    3rd person singular (n) es sein- its
    1st person plural wir unser- our 
    2nd person plural ihr eu(e)r- your 
    3rd person plural sie ihr- their

    By adding different endings we determine the pronouns...

    • ...number
    • ...gender
    • ...and case

    Examples

    • Das ist ein süßer Hund und es ist meiner. -That's a cute dog and it's mine.
    • Das Haus, welches abbrannte war seines. - The house which burned down was his. 
    • Unser Urlaub war schön. Wie war eurer? - Our vacation was nice. How was yours?

    Please click on 'German possessive pronouns' to get all the needed information.

    Demonstrative pronouns (dieser, jener, der, die, das, ...)

    Demonstrative pronouns are used to emphasize something that is already defined. They replace a before mentioned noun or accompany the emphasized noun.

    List of important possessive pronouns in German

    • dieser/ diese/ dieses​

    • jener/ jene/ jenes 

    • der da/ die da/ das da​
    • dieser dort/ diese dort/ dieses dort
    • derjenige/ diejenige(n)/ dasjenige
    • derselbe/ dieselbe/ dasselbe
    • der/ die/ das
    • ...

    English forms of demonstrative pronouns are 'that, this, those,...' 

    These pronouns have to be declined due to their...

    • ...number
    • ...gender,
    • ...and case

    The declension is similar to the declension of definite articles.

      Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
    Masculine dieser dieses diesem diesen
    Feminine diese dieser dieser diese
    Neuter dieses dieses diesem dies(es)
    Plural diese dieser diesen diese
     

    Examples

    • Mir gefällt dieser Tisch nicht. Jener dort drüben ist besser. - I don't like that table. That one over there is better.
    • Das ist ein echter Bernstein. Solche sind selten. - That's a real amber. Those ar rare.
    • Kennst du schon den neuen Mitschüler? - Nein, den habe ich noch nicht kennen gelernt. - Do you already know the new classmate? - No, I didn't get to know him yet.

    Follow the link and learn more about German demonstrative pronouns.

    Interrogative pronouns (wer, was, wen, wem, wessen, ...)

    Interrogative pronouns are used to ask for something or someone. They replace the noun, that is referred to in the question.

    The following list shows you the German interrogative pronouns with translation:

    • Wer? - Who?
    • Was? - What?
    • Wem? - Whom?
    • Wen? - Who?
    • Wessen? - Whose?
    • Welcher/Welche/Welchen? - Which?
    • Wie viel? - How much?
    • Wie viele? - How many?

    Interrogative pronouns have the same case as the noun they ask for.

    The majority of interrogative pronouns in German has no distinction in number and gender. (Exception: 'Welcher/Welche/Welchen')

    Examples

    • Wer ist der Mann? - Who is that man?
    • Wessen Tasche ist das? - Whose bag is that?
    • Wie viel Geld brauchst du? - How much money do you need?

    You get more detailed information on 'German interrogative pronouns'.

    Reflexive pronouns (mich, dich, sich, uns, euch, mir, dir)

    Reflexive pronouns ensure that the action expressed by the predicate is reflected on the subject. They linked to specific verbs that require reflective pronominal use, the so-called reflexive or reciprocal verbs.

    Reflexive pronouns are declined by their...

    • ... number (singular, plural)
    • ... and case (nominative, accusative, dative)

    You find all the reflexive pronouns in the following table

      Nominative

    Accusative

    Dative

    In English 
    1st person singular  ich mich  mir myself
    2nd person singular  du  dich  dir yourself
    3rd person singular  er / sie / es sich sich him- /her- / itself
    1st person plural  wir uns uns ourselves
    2nd person plural  ihr euch euch yourselves
    3rd person plural sie sich sich themselves
     
    Examples
    • Das bin ich. - That's me.
    • Sie wäscht sich. - She washes herself.
    • Das gefällt dir. - You like that.

    Click on 'German reflexive pronouns' and learn more!

    Indefinite pronouns (jemand, jeder, keiner, alle, etwas, man,...)

    Indefinite pronouns in German are used for undefined subjects or objects. They have the function of generalizing.

    List of most important indefinite pronouns:

    • etwas something
    • nichts nothing
    • man - one/you (undefined)
    • jemand somebody/someone/anybody/anyone
    • jeder everybody/everyone/anyone/anybody/every(-thing)
    • nichts - nothing
    • alles - everything
    • etwas - something / a little
    • ein bisschen / ein wenig - a little/a bit
    • einige - some

    Examples

    • Kann mir jemand die Tür öffnen? - Can somebody open the door?
    • Nichts kann mich mehr schocken. Nothing can shock me any more.
    • Es hängen noch einige Äpfel am Baum. - There are still hanging some apples on the tree.

    enlightenedIndefinite pronouns in German are declined in different ways!

    To get all needed information continue on 'German indefinite pronouns'.

    Relative pronouns (welcher, welche, welches, der , die, das, wo, was,...)

    A German relative pronoun introduces a relative clause which describes a nouns, pronoun or even a whole sentence more precisely. Therefore the relative pronouns replaces the related element in the relative clause.

    Gender and number of the pronoun are dependent to the element it is replacing.

    The pronouns case depends on given verbs or prepositions.

    'der/die/das' and 'welcher/welche/welches' are the most important relative pronouns.

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative der / welcher die / welche das / welches die / welche
    Accusative den / welchen die / welche das / welches die / welche
    Dative dem / welchem der / welcher dem / welchem denen / welchen
    Genitive dessen deren dessen deren
     

    Examples

    • Er ist der Junge, dem das Essen nicht schmeckte. - He is the boy, who didn't like food.
    • Die Äpfel, welche am Baum hängen, sind reif. - The towels, that are hanging on the tree, are ripe.

    Relative pronouns can also be used with prepositions

    • Der Baum, an dem die Äpfel hängen, ist groß. - The tree, on which the apples are hanging, is big.

    enlightenedThe relative pronouns 'was' and 'wo' are not declined

    • Alles, was ich sage, ist wichtig. - Everything I say is important.
    • Das ist der Ort, wo ich gestern war. - That's the place at which I've been yesterday.

    Click 'German relative pronouns' and learn more!

    Next lessons

    1 German personal pronouns Learn the German personal pronouns with a fun and short interactive lesson.
    2 German possessive pronouns Learn the German possessive pronouns with a fun and interactive lesson-
    3 German demonstrative pronouns Learn the German demonstrative pronouns with a short and interactive fun lesson.
    4 German interrogative pronouns Learn the German interrogative pronouns with a fun and short online lesson.
    5 German reflexive pronouns Learn about the German reflexive pronoun!
    6 German indefinite pronouns Learn about the German indefinite pronouns with an interactive lesson.
    7 German relative pronouns Learn about the German relative pronouns.