Auxiliary verbs in German
What are auxiliary verbs in German?
In German the auxiliary verbs are:
- sein - to be
- werden - to become
- haben - to have
All three auxiliary verbs are irregular!
Usage of German auxiliary verbs
Auxiliary verbs are used to build the folowing tenses:
- Futur I
- Futur II
|Tense||Construction (in general)||Example||Translation|
|Perfekt (Indikativ)||Indikativ Präsens of haben (or sein) + Partizip Perfekt of the full verb||Du hast einen Kuchen gebacken.||You have baked a cake.|
|Plusquamperfekt (Indikativ)||Indikativ Präteritum of haben (or sein) + Partizip Perfekt of the full verb||Du hattest einen kuchen gebacken.||You had baked a cake.|
|Futur I (Indikativ)||Indikativ Präsens of werden + Infinitiv Präsens of the full verb||Du wirst einen Kuchen backen.||You will bake a cake.|
|Futur II (Indikativ)||
Indikativ Präsens of werden + Infinitiv Perfekt of the full verb
|Du wirst einen kuchen gebacken haben¹.||You will have baked a cake.|
|Perfekt (Konjunktiv I)||Konjunktiv I Präsens of haben (or sein) + Partizip Perfekt of the full verb||Du habest einen Kuchen gebacken.||You would have backed a cake.|
|Futur I (Konjuktiv I)||Konjunktiv I Präsens of werden + Infinitiv präsens of the full verb||Du werdest einen Kuchen backen.||You would have baked a cake.|
|Futur II (Konjunktiv I)||Konjunktiv I Präsens of werden + Infinitiv Perfekt of the full verb||Du werdest einen Kuchen gebacken haben.||You would have baked a cake.|
¹ We also need the auxiliary verbs haben and sein to build the Invinitiv Perfekt.
- Er wird eine Aussage gemacht haben. - He will have made a statement.
- Sie wird alt geworden sein. - She will have grown old.
We use the auxiliary verb werden also to build the passive form in German.
- Ich werde beobachtet. - I am being observed
- Du wurdest gesehen. - You have been seen.
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