There is no expression of numerus (grammatical number) and person in the infinitive form of a verb. In this lesson you will learn about the infinitive with or without "zu" and how you use them. The infinitive verb is placed at the end.
For example: Es dauert lange, durch die Innenstadt zu gehen.
A lot of verbs need an infinitive form with zu.
|explanation||verb||example with "zu"||Translation|
|effort/ plan||sich bemühen, planen, versuchen||Ich versuche, still zu halten.||I try to hold still|
|verbs that express opinions||denken, erwarten, vermuten||Ich vermute, den Einbrecher gesehen zu haben.||I suspect to have seen the burglar|
|verbs that express agreements||abmachen, beschließen, vereinbaren||Ich beschließe, meine Wohnung zu verlassen.||I decide to leave my apartment|
|verbs that express a start||beginnen, anfangen||Ich beginne mich wohl zu fühlen.||I start to feel well|
|verbs that express a decision||sich verpflichten, sich weigern||Ich weigere mich, meinen Platz zu verlassen.||I refuse to leave my spot|
There are to forms of using zu (zu or um ...zu).
1.The infinitive verb is widened with zu. Both are placed at the end of a sentence.
Ich kann bald lesen und schreiben. -> Ich hoffe, bald lesen und schreiben zu können.
Willst du die Kirche besichtigen? -> Hast du Lust, die Kirche zu besichtigen?
2. The construction with um ... zu differs. It is equivalent to the English construction "(in order) to" plus the infinitive of the verb. Um is at the beginning of the infinitive-sentence.
Esse einen Apfel, um gesund zu bleiben!
Um dick zu werden, muss man viel essen.
Pay attention, if you are using separable verbs."Zu" is placed between both parts of the verb.
|abfahren||abzufahren||Um abzufahren, müssen die Türen geschlossen sein.||To drive off, the doors must be closed|
|abreisen||abzureisen||Um abzureisen, müssen die Koffer gepackt sein.||To travel, the bags must be packed.|
We use only the infinitive form, if the following verb is used...
|explanation of the verb||verb||example without zu||Translation|
|modal verbs||können, dürfen, sollen||Du sollst dein Zimmer aufräumen.||You are supposed to clean up your room|
|perception||sehen, hören, spüren||Ich höre Sophia schreien.||I hear Sophia scream|
|motion||gehen, kommen, fahren||Er fährt sie besuchen.||He drives to visit her|
|lassen||Er lässt sie fahren.||He lets her drive|
|bleiben||Er bleibt vor ihr stehen.||He stays in front of her|
|finden, haben||Sie hat ihre Flasche auf dem Boden stehen.||She has her bottle standing on the floor|
Now, that you have learned about the usage of infinitive verbs move on to our exercises to improve your knowledge.
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